Stories with Jacob Bear (1838-1925) from Isaac Cowie’s The Company of Adventurers

In the middle of June my laptop crashed and all of my genealogical research was trapped on my drive for several stressful weeks. It was a scary reminder to back up my research! Thankfully, I was able to send my drive to a local business that was able to rescue my files. Phew.

Now that I have them back, I’ll be working to upload more material to my blog such as the following stories I transcribed from Isaac’s Cowie’s book The Company of Adventurers.

These stories are related to Jacob Bear who worked at Fort Qu’Appelle at the same time as Cowie. In my research around his time with the Hudson Bay Company I had located a document which listed that Jacob had been referenced in the book. To my delight when I pulled the book to review I found a number of stories that mention Jacob which were not listed. I’ve highlighted the first mention of his name in orange in each story to make it easier to find him in the text.

My favourite story is about how Jacob saved the lives of both Isaac and a young boy who had been traveling with them when they got caught up in a terrible blizzard. Without Jacob’s level-headed thinking they would have never made it to camp.

The Rest of the Garrison.

Next in the roll of the fort comes William Kennedy, apprentice interpreter, a boy of about twelve years old at the time, now an elderly settler of many years and good standing, near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. He also came of good old Hudson’s Bay officers’ stock, his grandfathers being Chief Factors Alexander Kennedy and Roderick McKenzie, and his name father and uncle, Captain William Kennedy, the well-known Arctic explorer.

Space cannot be given to all I would like to say about other friends and comrades at Fort Qu’Appelle, and as their names will come up in course of the narrative I shall only mention them briefly here. The three Sandisons and Thorne were English halfbreeds and so were their wives, and Mrs. McKay; Flemmand and Robillard and their wives were French halfbreeds, although the latter looked a very fair Frenchman and the former a pure Indian. Of the Europeans, besides Mr. McDonald and myself, Gowdie Harper was the only one permanently attached to the fort, the others being only send there to pass the winter where provisions were plentiful, and to be drilled to their duty by Mr. McDonald (who had a reputation for breaking in green hands as well as bronchos) preparatory to being sent elsewhere—Dyer to Lake Manitoba and the other two to Athabasca, next summer. Of the two Americans, Jordan, who remained in the country, will be mentioned again, and Davis returned to the States after a year or so. Nepapeness was a all, splendid-looking fellow. Neither he nor his wife was a Christian. On the other hand, Jacob Bear and his wife were well instructed Christians from St. Peter’s, both speaking, reading and writing English, also syllabic.

Cowie, 1913, p. 221-222.

Lynx and Whitefish.

On Monday Mr. McDonald ordered ponies to be brought round and we set out to visit the fishery up the lake. Of course several of the train dogs followed up, and among them his steering dog, “Beaver,” who, running ahead of us, started a lynx from his lair along the trail. We at once dashed after him, but after taking first one long leap, next a shorter, and then one quite short, as is the nature of the beast, the lynx took refuge from the dogs in pursuit by scrambling up a tree, from which Mr. McDonald brought him down dead with a shot from his double barrel. Now at last, I thought, I had reached the happy hunting grounds of my dreams, for he treated the matter as one quite common in a sally from the post.

We found Jacob Bear with a big stage laden with whitefish, hung, in tens by the tail, to freeze for winter’s use, and although of the fine warm weather still continuing during the day, that would only make them more palatable than quite fresh fish as an article of frequent diet. Jacob had also split, slightly salted and smoked some of the finest of his catch, like finnan haddies, for the mess. He gave us a few ducks, caught while diving in the net, to take back with the smoked fish and the lynx, to the fort, all being good to eat; for roast lynx was thought to be a great delicacy.

Cowie, 1913, p. 224-225.

My Friend Flemmand.

I spent a few pleasant days under Jerry’s hospitable roof, and with Jordan’s aid we had several sing-songs, Jerry’s contribution being, “The North Counteree” and mine “The Jolly Dogs,” which latter charmed the ear or fancy of Olivier Flemmand, who was a jolly dog himself. The chorus was “Slap, bang, here we are again,” in which Flemmand turned the “slap” into “frappe” in his rendering. Flemmand was a tall, lithe, active fellow, who justly prided himself on his prowess as a runner, for on one occasion he had run the distance of one hundred and thirty-five miles from Fort Qu’Appelle to Fort Ellice within twenty-four hours in the heat of summer, carrying an urgent letter. He was polite, good-natured, full of fun, and talkative. He was a good-looking fellow, although as dark skinned as most Indians, but inside he seemed to be all French with one exception, for he was an arrant coward. This he sought to conceal by brag and bluster, and bullying young fellows under him with most savage threats. He talked French, Saulteau and Cree, and spoke English amusingly.

Flemmand wanted to get a trip in the to fort to see his family, so Mr. McKay sent him with me, via Old Wives’ Creek, where Jacob Bear was wintering in the lodge of Ookemah, the recognized chief of the Qu’Appelle Saulteaux. The American, Charles David, and William Sandison, with a train of dogs each, came with us on the homeward journey.

Old Wives’ Creek.

On the 27th of January I note that Jacob Bear had on hand ninety buffalo ropes, seventy buffalo tongues, five badgers, five red foxes, twenty kitt foxes, one lynx and twenty wolves as the result of his trade to that time. My visit afforded old Ookemah the unusual opportunity of putting his grievances in writing. The old fellow was in a sulky mood probably arising from disturbance of his liver from overeating, for he was living on the fat of the land, and he was far too fat himself anyhow to be healthy. Obesity is not common among male Indians, but it is, I think, more frequently found among the Saulteaux than the other tribes. He and his son, White Bear, appeared to be conjoint chiefs in some way, which Flemmand failed to make me understand. Neither could I understand and get any comprehensible explanation of the chief’s bitter complaint that he had not been paid in full for the “present” to the Company with which he had celebrated, according the the custom, his arrival in state at the fort in the fall. The alleged present consisted of two horses and some furs and provisions, and all those who contributed towards it had been paid in full but he himself, said he. He also grumbled that his gratuities as a chief had been forced upon him against his will, and for these he might be called upon to pay when he was unable. Bewildered between what he regarded as my childish questions for an explanation, and the inadequacy of Flemmand’s interpretation in such a case of delicate diplomacy, I finally simply wrote down what Flemmand said the chief had said, Mr. McDonald to solve the problem himself.

Start for the Fort.

We passed a day with Jacob, and on the 30th of January, 1868, set out for the fort, the trail to which, after reaching the Hotel Denomie, at the River the Turns, would be that followed on the outward voyage. Although Jacob had plenty of carts to carry in to the fort all he was likely to trade by spring, we loaded up our sleds with robes, or rather Jacob and Flemmand loaded mine, saying that my dogs were strong and well able to draw forty large prime robes. While the stuff I had taken to Wood Mountain on my sled probably weighed as much, yet in bulk it was not half as high as the load of loose, unpacked robes they piled on it. Flemmand, having no dog-train to drive, set off ahead, on an old trail hard enough to hold up a man without snowshoes. He seemed to be in a heart hurry and kept us busy attempting to keep up with him. But the roadway was over rolling ground and sided slopes where my sled was continually swinging off the narrow track and upsetting in the soft, deep snow alongside. The ground seemed to be honeycombed with badger holes, and nearly every time I got off the track to right my sled down one of my legs would go full length in one of the holes. Sandison and Davis, having lighter and well-snugged loads, did not have so much difficulty and were more experienced in the work; but they, too, had had enough of Flemmand’s furious rush at the start and were glad when he halted at my signal. I came up to him hot in body and in temper, for I suspected he had done as he did “to play over a greenhand.” I said:

“We will stop and make tea, and then you and I, Flemmand, will go back to Jacob’s while the others go on. We will catch them up in the morning.”

“What for, m’sieu, you want to go back?” asked Flemmand, with feigned surprise.

“Because I did not come out here to do the work of a cart-horse, with a sled that you have loaded as high as a haystack,” I answered, hotly. “We will make a cariole at Jacob’s and you will drive me in, in style, to the fort.”

Cowie, 1913, p. 260-263.

Caught in a Prairie Blizzard.

That winter I made two other trips with dogs. One was out to Old Wives’ Lake with Jacob Bear and a lad named Unide Gardupuis, on which we had the unpleasant experience of being caught by a blizzard on the bare prairie. Scraping the snow away down to the grass with our snowshoes, we laid down with robes and blankets under and over us, and let the snowdrift cover us up. After spending forty-eight hours huddled together for warmth in this decidedly uncomfortable “camp,” nibbling a morsel of pemmican and trying to thaw snow for drinking in the covered copper teakettle we put to warm in our bosoms, Jacob thrust his head up, and, seeing it was clear, said we must get up and run for the nearest woods.

Though clear, the north-west wind was strong and piercingly cold. The dogs were all covered up under the snow around us. Feeling for them with our feet, and pulling them out of their comparatively warm lairs, we, with great difficulty and distress, with hands and fingers already benumbed in lashing the bedding on the sleds, hitched them in and set off. Jacob ran ahead of his train to give a lead, for there was no trail and the wind was blowing hard slantingly ahead and across our course over the Couteau. The two trains of dogs, Jacob’s and my own, which I was driving after him, constantly edged away from the slanting head wind, and I had all I could do to keep them on the course. We had eaten little and drunk less while under the snow, and it was forenoon with no chance of reaching the woods on Old Wives’ Creek till sundown.

Suddenly Jacob began running harder than ever, and then stopped and began scooping a hole in the snow. When we came nearer he shouted, “We’ll boil the kettle here,” for he had found sticking out of a badger hole the larger half of a broken pine tent pole, than which nothing could be better to kindle a smudgy fire on buffalo dung. We willingly “rooted” with our feet for the precious buffalo chips, and had a pile high as a haycock by the time Jacob had knifed enough shavings to kindle it. The storm being violent, we covered Jacob with a robe while he struck a light with flint and steel. The fuel soon smouldered into red, and the kettle was boiled for a long longed-for drink of tea, after we had first slaked our thirst by melting snow in the frying-pan. But although it boiled the kettle, that smouldering fire gave out no warmth to us around it. Poor young Unide, thinly-clad in cotton shirt and white cloth capote, with his blanket over all for a shawl, had to keep on the run round and round about the fire, nibbling at a lump of frozen pemmican as he went, and stopping for a moment occasionally to take a drink of tea. Jacob and I were able to keep from freezing, being better clad, and sat down with our robes over our backs and heads on the weather side of the fire, more to protect it from being blown away than for any warmth we could possibly derive from it.

As soon as we got the fire going the dogs were given a little pemmican, enough to keep up their strength without impeding their travelling till night. So the whole party started with renewed strength and spirit to battle with that biting breeze till we should find rest and safety in the bush on the borders of the Old Wives’ Creek. Every few minutes as we ran we had to thaw the frostbites on our noses and faces.

The sun had gone down when we gained the desire haven just in time for Jacob to see well enough to chop the big lot of firewood for the blazing bonfire he intended to enjoy in the comfort of a camp in the shelter of the woods, in contrast with the sufferings we had endured on the wind-swept prairie and under the snow.

Had Unide and I been alone we would never have reached that camp; and it had taxed even the hardiness of Jacob to do so. As soon as he had finished cutting all the firewood he wanted, and came to stand by the fire, he discovered that his right ear, on the windward side, had been solidly frozen, and by its commencing to thaw it gave him intense pain, from which he suffered many a day. He bravely bore it and laughingly said, “You will be able to put down my name on the list with marks like a horse with a crop ear, and call me Jacob “Court Oreille.”*

The only other trip I made that winter of any consequence was one to Fort Pelly, where, apart from giving my hospitable welcome as a newcomer to Swan River district, I was wanted to extract a troublesome tooth for Chief Factor Campbell’s lady.

* A few days ago I had the great pleasure of hearing that my good-natured and capable travelling companion is alive and in the enjoyment of fairly good health near Whitewood, Saskatchewan.

Cowie, 1913, p. 353-355.

Brown Bess Bellows.

Only a few impotent malcontents remained about the lakes, and his mission destroyed their last hopes of sharing in any pillage others might provide. These now began to fear reprisals for the insulting abuse they had taken every safe occasion to give vent to against the Company’s people and the even more hated men from Ontario. So, to encourage them, and at the same time to experiment with an old army Brown Bess as a scatter gun when loaded half up with powder and trading bullets, I had one mounted on a pair of cart wheels, and choosing a clam day began practicing with it as a field-piece, taking the precaution to use a long line attached to the trigger to set it off. As a target, and to observe the spread of the bullets, we used the side of the ice-house. Jacob Bear, who had taken great delight in operating it while we were firing this dreadfully overcharged gun for nothing but the noise, when it had been filled to the muzzle with probably a bursting charge, took shelter to one side of the line of fire round a corner of the stockades. Simultaneously with the roar of the gun there came a yell of alarm from Jacob: “It shoots round the corner,” yelled, for he declared that bullets had whizzed past him in his retreat. It certainly was a scatter-gun, and seemed to be absolutely proof against bursting.

The echoes of the loud bellowings of this good old Brown Bess, careering down the valley for miles, aroused alarm along the shores of the lakes. “The soldiers have come to the fort,” was the cry. Next day one of the most malignant came up cautiously to find out who had come and brought the big cannon. He saw neither newcomers nor cannon, but we all looked quite consequential. So he went back mystified, to be again alarmed by the rousing echoes next calm day. We had some fun out of it, and we had found that the old blunderbuss might be a very effective weapon at close range to guard our gates.

Cowie, 1913, p. 412-413.

We Hold the Fort.

As Mr. McDonald was leaving I asked him for instructions as to what was to be done in case of attack. He replied, “Act according to circumstances on your own judgment after consulting Jerry.” A fully half of the business of that post was in summer provision trade and the principal requirements for it were arms and ammunition, our store contained a large supply of these essentials, and I determined to blow the place up sooner than that they should fall into the hands of any attacking force. Jerry was of the same mind, and in his constant palavers with the Indians urged upon them the necessity of protecting themselves against famine and other foes by protecting the fort, of which the garrison left by Mr. McDonald consisted of himself, young Kennedy, Jacob Bear, George Sandison, George Thorne, with Henry Jordan as my cook, and myself. All the families, except that of Mr. McDonald, remained in the fort.

The Crees, under Loud Voice, in lodges placed a long intervals, camped in a circle round the fort, ever on the watch, and ably aided by the dogs belonging to them and to us. It was against surprise we had to guard, till the Indians could enter and take position behind the pickets.

Nearly the whole month of June did the Metis belonging to the lakes, and others, principally malcontents from the border, linger round the lakes. They outnumbered us and our allies, but not sufficiently so to encourage them to make an attack, if so minded, for which we were prepared. We all anxiously awaited news from Red River, which might possibly come by a party sent out to augment the malcontents at Qu’Appelle and lead them in an attack on the fort. Rumours to that effect freely circulated, announcing the virtuous indignation of the Provisional Government at the slur cast upon them by the Swan River furs having been sent direct across the plains to evade capture by them. But whatever the alleged arrangement might have been, it was not recognized by Chief Factor Campbell nor his gallant friend, Chief Factor Stewart, who was making aggressive preparations to recapture Fort Garry, as a brigade after brigade from the interior arrived at Norway House. I know not whether or not the determination of these two Highland officers to resist any aggression on their districts and redeem the credit of the Company from the reproach of having permitted Fort Garry to fall into the hands of the malcontents without resistance, had anything to do with their being both “permitted to retire” when the “reorganization” of the Company’s arrangement with the fur-trade officers was carried out through the diplomatic medium of Mr. Donald A. Smith; but that seemingly was their reward for valour.

Cowie, 1913, p. 409-410.

Starvation on the Plains.

When Jerry and Jacob and the men who had wintered with them at Eagle Quills arrived that spring they brought harrowing tales of starvation, instead of the usual supply of provisions. Some of them had gone without food for three days at a stretch; they had eaten the buffalo sinews, of which thread was made for sewing leather, and feasted upon any wolf which they had the good luck to poison. On the way in their chief dependence had been gophers, caught by pouring water in their holes and forcing them out to snares set at the openings. The only food which was abundant that spring was suckers, which swarmed the creeks, and these fish of many bones and poor eating, became, with a little milk, barley and potatoes, the only rations at the fort. So when we were packing the furs and robes there was little skylarking and laughter, neither was there any merry-maker, like Flemmand—or rather Jackson—to cheer them up.

Cowie, 1913, p. 425.


Cowie, I. 1913, “The Company of Adventurers”, Toronto, Wm. Briggs.

Letter from Thomas Bear to his daughter Isabella (1883)

In this blog post I’m going to share the transcript from a letter written by Thomas Bear (1801 or 1810-1892) to one of his daughters named Isabella.

I first mentioned this letter in my post about his son, Jacob Bear (1839-1925), and would like to do a full post on Thomas one day as he is the furtherest I can trace in the Bear family beyond mention of his father Wapask in the 1870 Manitoba Census.

I first learned of this letter’s existence while researching the Bear family from St. Peters. In my search for this line of Bears, I came across Angela Jeske’s 1990 Thesis entitled, St. Peter’s Indian Settlement: A House Indian Community at Red River, 1833-1856.

This thesis really helped flesh out what St. Peter’s was like and who lived there during the early and mid-1800s which I previously had been unable to find information. Much of the published materials I have looked at focused on the later 1800s and early 1900s which is too far ahead for what I’ve been focused on.

As well, it is possible to associate specific family names with either “Cree” or “Saulteaux”. Names common to those identified as Cree were Bear, Badger, Cockrane, Johnstone, Stevenson, Thomas, Sutherland, Isham, Whitford, Sinclair, Sandison, Williams, Turner, Kennedy, Garioch and Halco.

Jeske, 1990, p. 68.

The census of 1835 records three separate heads of families with this name [Bear]: Jacob, John, David. It is likely, however, that Thomas Bear “an Indian from Cumberland House” was the brother of the previously mentioned family heads, and was connected to Robert Stranger through both place (Cumberland House) and marriage.

Jeske, 1990, p. 79.

Based on this information I suspect the family hails from northern Manitoba or Saskatchewan as I’ve seen references to both Norway House (Kinosao Sipi – ᑭᓄᓭᐏ ᓰᐱᐩ) and Cumberland House.

This next part just goes to show I need to write down where and how I come across some of my references. In my general search regarding the Bears, I came across another book entitled, The Shady Side of Fifty: Age and Old Age in Late Victorian Canada and the United States by Lisa Dillon.

The economic status of indigenous elderly wives, whose family economies were typically resource based, was undoubtedly less certain than that of their white counterparts. The insecurity of Isabella Beardy old age is evident in a letter written by her husband, Thomas Bear, a Cree born in Rupert’s Land, to his daughter in 1883. A broken gun and lack of a boat impeded Bear’s abilities to hunt for himself and his wife. Their son, Peter, planted wheat and barley, which Isabella was left to reap. A granddaughter, Maggie, arrived unannounced; she helped dig up potatoes but left her grandparents mystified by her sudden departure from their daughter’s home. With Peter away hunting ducks, Isabella and Thomas made their own efforts to repair their house. When Isabella and Thomas attempted to cope with their problems by praying, Peter interrupted them drunk; it was Isabella’s role to pacify their drunken son. Although Isabella had borne nine children, her security and peace in old age was far from guaranteed.

Dillon, 2008, p. 45.

Intrigued by the content of the letter, I was able to have it retrieved from the Manitoba Provincial Archives during my visit in October 2021. A copy of the original letter had been made and then donated by an individual from Thunder Bay in October of 1992.

Ann Morton, Head of Research and Reference at the HBC Archives, wrote in her reply that there was only one Thomas Bear that could be found in the 1870 Census. Based on his age, place of residence, and connection to a daughter named Isabel, it was very likely the Thomas in the census was the same one who wrote the letter.

She also provided additional information from the 1870 Census and Anglican Parish Registers and mentioned that she checked the HBC employment records but could not find any information prior to his marriage in 1835. She suggests that he was either not employed by the HBC or was an undocumented seasonal worker.

A second page was included with some genealogy information related to Thomas and his family. Thomas Bear married Isabella Beardy on December 3rd, 1835 in St. Peters. The pair had the following children recorded in St. Peter’s registers: Thomas (1836), Robert (1837), Jacob (1839), Isabella (1842), Elizabeth (1844), Sophia (1846), George (1848), Joseph (1851) and Mary Joan (1859). The couple also had a son named Peter but he was not included in the parish register. The researcher wondered whether Joseph (1851) could be Peter or if his name was life off altogether.

The letter was 9 pages in length and hand-written so I had some trouble deciphering some of the text. I always think of younger generations who are not being taught cursive and the extra work archivists and researchers will have to do in order to familiarize themselves with it before even looking at some of the extra peculiarities with style that come and go.

In any case, I have kept most original spelling and have added my educated guesses within brackets.

St. Peters
October 23rd
Mrs. Esibella Hopeboam

dear daughter

I was very glad to receive [your] letter. to learn that you are all still alive. and about what you wish from me [I do it] for you. I could not do it for you. know I am [getting] blind I only killed one duck this summer, and the same time you know that I broke my gun last spring before you went away.

[since] I have no gun nor a boat to hunt with even I have no boat to set my net with. am that hard up having no flour or tea. I sold 10 bushels of potatoes [and past] only [come] being after my pay. but they are very cheap this year. they are only 25 cts per bushel but I put 35 cts per bushel myself and about the house fixing.

I see plainly Peter can’t do it for he has lots of work to do this fall to fix the [biars] and his after ducks all this time. So we are trying to fix the house ourselves after your sister heard about that you was wanting me to hunt ducks for you, she said that Abram would hunt for you in place of that [money] you sent to take him out to Rat Portage.

Abram [he’s] always after ducks but they generally take them up to Winnipeg. but we always [set] a share every time he [arrives]. they went down one week already with his family. they [plan] to stay for two weeks. after that [he’s gone] to fix his house and stable for the winter.

I always known that it was very hard for an old man to make his living. for the little wheat + barley that Peter put down for us. when it got ripe it was only your mother had it cut it down. sometimes I would try and help her. you don’t know how much I pitied your mother at last I had to go to work and cut it with a scythe. and about the digging of potatoes while your mother and me was digging, Maggie came and I was very thankful when she came for it was a great help to us.

I [feel] a great deal harder to live than usual for Peter and [Isauc] [doesn’t] leave off drinking, actually your brother came in while having prayers being drunk your mother had to get up to try and pacify him and me praying. but mind that I didn’t tell this to anyone excepting you. I [feel] very lonesome a many a time in my soul, not in the outward body, for I know very well that am old man that has known many [his] got to be in need a many a time.

and after I had your letter read to me. I think a great deal concerning what you [gone] to do before hand this is the third time now I hear a person saying that this summer. very likely you will not see the day and that’s why I think a great deal. it [is] very hard for me which to believe you say in your letter that you didn’t know that Maggie was lonesome if you were that- you would let her come [home] for the time you sent for Sophie if she would go that you would let Maggie come home for you said [there] that she was lonesome and that’s why I said it is very hard for me which to believe different stories.

I was very much thankful when you had [elloss] relations you out. Betsy my own [sister] and your brother’s daughter when you was gone to meet we may say near death. after you went through. then to give them such bad name. I thought you would have [more] thankful to those who kept you dear daughter. I know that am very wicked and the same to my sister Betsy your aunt am know that that she kept a many a [cree] and I never hear ever [to set] after keeping somebody a bad name not as same as what you do.

it is very good to [deny] yourself sometimes after thinking bad for you know very well dear daughter the God’s holy scripture says to forgive your brother that offend you. for if you don’t forgive, your Heavenly father will also not forgive your sins. for wickedness as many a time is chastised. therefore try and love your dear little ones. therefore dear daughter try and forget all the bad thoughts what you have thinking. St John tell us to believe and repent of our evil doings and we shall have everlasting life.

I think you brother Robert [he’s] very much troubled all the time. he’s living with a woman but not lawfully married. he only writes to [Snyder] he never writes to us. and by him we hear. that’s why am telling you that I [feel] very lonesome in my [soul].

am very much thankful to your husband when [he’s] keeping you right-therefore be good to your husband dear daughter, and about your brother Jacob I never hear from him. last spring last he was seen [at] Qu’Appelle and he was gone farther west I hear that by mouth he never send a letter to us since last winter.

Edward Thomas was far west this summer and I ask him [whether] he ever heard or any thing about him he said no. I send a letter [to] him to tell me [whether] [he’s] alive or not, but the letter went astray. the letter came to me again and I sent it off again, since I didn’t hear.

I have lots of news that I could tell you lots of sickness for children very hard sickness and whooping cough, and about Maggie running off from [you]. I didn’t ask her one question so I don’t know anything, why she did, that’s all. Kisses to you children, husband, may the Lord bless you and keep you and lead you to everlasting life, good night.

Your father
Thos Bear

Letter from Thomas Bear to Mrs Esibella Hopeboram, St Peters, 23 October 1883, Thomas Bear Collection, P 5098 f.8, Manitoba Provincial Archives.

There is so much interesting information contained in this letter that I’ve used to support ongoing research. Due to the difficulties I’d had in transcribing the content, I have also uploaded copies of my photos of the letter for anyone who might want to take a stab at some of the peculiar words that don’t fit.


Dillon, Lisa. The Shady Side of Fifty: Age and Old Age in Late Victorian Canada and the United States. McGill-Queen’s University Press. 2008.

Jeske, Angela. 1990. St. Peter’s Indian Settlement: A House Indian Community at Red River, 1833-1856. Master of Arts Thesis. University of Alberta.

Letter from Thomas Bear to Mrs Esibella Hopeboram, St Peters, 23 October 1883, Thomas Bear Collection, P 5098 f.8, Manitoba Provincial Archives.

Ukrainian songs and stories (Robert Klymasz fieldwork collection)

Continuing the post from late last week, here are some additional songs and stories from the Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives.

There were 68 recordings made from Fork River that included 32 recordings from Mrs. John Masiowski, 21 recordings from Dokiia Rozmarynovychrecordings from Mrs. Jacob Harrison, and 4 recordings from Walter Pasternak. Since his recordings were mislabeled I’m unable to link to them as a collection, only one-by-one below.

Additionally, Robert Klymasz recorded stories and songs from PlumasRorketon, and Winnipegosis as well as in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

You can listen to the entire collection on their website.

I’ve organized all of the Fork River items alphabetically in the Cyrillic alphabet and linked each one separately.

I found a few of the songs in Robert Klymasz’ publications which I pulled from the University of Manitoba’s Slavic Collection at the Elizabeth Dafoe Library. I’ve marked them in the chart for easy identification and included the musical notation and lyrics from the books in both English and Ukrainian.

Dokiia Rozmarynovych Songs

Rozmarinovich [Rozmarynovyč], Dokija (Mrs. Pavlo, nee Bassarabova) 73, retired. Born in in the village of Ukivtsi, Borshchiv district, Ternopil’ region, Ukraine. Arrived in Canada in 1920. Recorded in Fork River, Manitoba, 10 August 1964.

Romanized TitleCyrillic TitleLength
Description of the wedding-tree preparationn/a3:01
Vinochok zelenen’kyiВіночок зелененький3:50
Hotuisia, nenechko, hotuisieГотуйся, ненечко, готуйсє0:35
Dolynoiu pshchenychen’ka, horoiu vovesДолиною пшениченька, горою вовес0:44
Ie v hai dorozhechka, do shliubu stezhechkaЄ в гай дорожечка, до шлюбу стежечка1:11
Kendryno (2), chom nad vodoiu stoialyКендрино (2), чом над водою стояли4:36
Khodzhu po Kanadi ta i myli rakhuiuХоджу по Канаді та й милі рахую10:36
Letila zozul’ka, sila na prutynuЛетіла зозулька, сіла на прутину21:57
Liuliu, liuliu kolyshu tieЛюлю, люлю колишу тє0:32
Oi vinku, vinku ty mii tiazhen’kyi zhaliuОй вінку, вінку ти мій тяженький жалю1:06
Oi vyisie, vinochku, vyisieОй вийсє, віночку, вийсє1:08
Oi mamuniu, holova nie bolytОй мамуню, голова нє болит3:28
Oi plyly huson’ky bystroiu vodoiОй плили гусоньки бистрою водою1:59
Oi roztelysia khryshchastyi barvinkuОй розтелися хрищастий барвінку2:51
Oi khora ia khoraОй хора я хора1:46
Oi khora ia khora, ta budu vmyratyОй хора я хора, та буду вмирати2:17
Oi cherez richku voda ideОй через річку вода іде0:17
Proshchai derievne, proshchai KavkazПрощай дєревні, прощай Кавказ2:23
Raduiisia matinochko, vzialo shliub dytiatochkoРадуйся матіночко, взяло шлюб дитяточко1:04
Spivanochky (2) de ia vas podiiuСпіваночки (2) де я вас подію0:27
Ta i chomu zh ty Hanusiu ne placheshТа і чому ж ти Ганусю не плачеш0:33
Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives – Kule Folklore Centre, Faculty of Arts, University of Alberta.

1 Published in Folk Narrative Among Ukrainian-Canadians in Western Canada. Robert B. Klymasz. 1973.

2 Published in The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada. Robert B. Klymasz. Ottawa. 1970.

Of those who actually participated in Canada’s first influx of Ukrainian peasant settlers at the turn of the century, few are alive today. Having witnessed and survived the early years of toil and hardship, they invariably sense a strong feeling of accomplishment and are eager to relate their experiences to members of the younger, Canadian-born generation which, in their opinion, does not know or fails to appreciate “what we went through.” Many of the Ukrainian old-timers are able to recall the old songs which depicted the immigrant’s experience in his new Canadian environment. These frequently include a popular motif portraying Canada as a deceitful seductress who has lured the hapless peasant away from his beloved ones in the Old Country.

Folk Narrative Among Ukrainian-Canadians in Western Canada. Robert B. Klymasz. 1973. p. 10.
Xodzhu po Kanadi taj myli raxuju,
De j nje nich napadyt tam perenochuju.

Kanado, Kanado, jaka ty zradlyva,
Ne jednoho cholovika z zhinkou rozluchyla,

Ne jednoho cholovika taj ne jedni dity,
Oj hore zh tam hore v Kanadi sysity.
As I walk through Canada I count the miles
And bed down for the night wherever night falls.

O Canada, Canada, how deceitful you are!
Many a man have you separated from his wife,

Many a man and many children –
O how miserable it is to be in this Canada!
Folk Narrative Among Ukrainian-Canadians in Western Canada. Robert B. Klymasz. 1973. p. 10.
Летіла зозулька,
Сіла на прутину.
Ти мене сестричко,
Просила в гостину.

Та й рада б я, сестро,
В гостi приïхати,
Далека дорога,
Не мож сi дiстати.

Далека дорога,
Та й щироке море.
Як си нагадаю,
Ой Боже ж мiй, Боже.

Ходжу я по лiсi,
По лiсi блукаю,
До своï сестрички
Дороги шукаю.

Шукаю дороги,
Дороги сухоi.
Та й може б я зайшла
До родтини своi.

Сестричко, сестричко,
Сидиш на посазi.
Сидиш на посазi,
Сумно виглядаєш,
Та й того сестричко,
Що мами не маєш.
The cuckoo was flying
And perched on a branch.
You, my sister,
have invited me for a visit.

How gladly, o sister,
I would come for a visit,
But the way is long,
I can’t make it.

The way is long,
And the sea is wide.
When I think about it –
O my God, o my God!

I’m walking through the forest
I’m roaming through the forest.
I’m looking for the way
To my sister’s.

I’m looking for the way,
A dry roadway.
Maybe I could make my way
To my family.

Sister, o sister,
You’re seated on the trousseau.
You’re seated on the trousseau.
You look sad,
And that is, o sister,
Because you have no mother.
The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada. Robert B. Klymasz. Ottawa. 1970. p. 146.

Mrs. Jacob Harrison Songs

Romanized TitleCyrillic TitleLength
Zaprosyla mene molodychka liubaЗапросила мене молодичка люба4:04
Mysleiu, dumkoiu lynu u ridnyi krai na UkrainuМислею, думкою лину у рідний край на Україну3:46
Nad Prutom u lisi khatyna stoit’Над Прутом у лісі хатина стоїть1:49
Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives – Kule Folklore Centre, Faculty of Arts, University of Alberta.

I did not find any of Mrs. Harrison’s songs in any of the publications I pulled from the University of Manitoba’s library.

Walter Pasternak Songs

Pasternak, Walter [Volodymyr], 50, farmer. Born in Fork River, Manitoba. Recorded in Fork River, Manitoba, 20 July 1964.

Romanized TitleCyrillic TitleLength
A vam tatu zhurytysiaА вам тату журитися1:37
Aby sie divchynon’kaАби сє дівчинонька30:47
Podumai tovaryshu iak my sia liubylyПодумай товаришу як ми ся любили41:19
Podumaite liudy, nekhai Boh zhadaieПодумайте люди, нехай Бог згадає1:57
Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives – Kule Folklore Centre, Faculty of Arts, University of Alberta.

3 Published in Ukrainian Folksongs from the Prairies. Complied under the direction of the collector with the participation of Andrij Hornjatkevyč, Bohdan Medwidsky, and Paula Prociuk. Collected by Robert B. Klymasz. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. University of Alberta. 1992.

4 Published in Ukrainian Folklore in Canada: An Immigrant Complex in Transition. Robert B. Klymasz. 1970.

Songs from the New World

Ой то би сє дiвчинонька
В сих м’ясниць вiддала,
Якби вона чайнамена
Снгарiв не крала.

Єдна крала сигарети,
А друга бинени,
Трета з боку заглєдала,
Чи йдут чайнамени.

Гелен, Стелла i Тереса
Моди сє тримали
Та й по двадцiть п’ять поверхiв
Дреси вишивали.

Як сє вбере тую дресу,
Намалює пику,
Вона сибе прикладає
За паню велику.

Покинь, дiвче, малювати,
Бо висмiют люди,
Бо з тих павдрiв i з липстикiв,
Газдинi не буде
Oh, the girl would have got married
During this meat season,
If she hadn’t been stealing
Cigars from the Chinaman.

One of them stole cigarettes
And another bananas,
And a third one was on the lookout from the side
Whether Chinaman were coming.

Helen, Stella and Theresa
Kept up with fashion,
And each had sewn dresses
Twenty-five stories high.

When she wears this dress
And “colours” her snout,
She plays the role
Of a great lady.

Stop, girl, putting on make-up
Because people will laugh at you,
Because those powders and lipsticks
Will never make a good housewife.
Songs from the New World. Song 54. Ukrainian Folksongs from the Prairies. 1992. p. 137.

All activities are temporarily suspended about none o’clock at which time all guests line up to present the bridal couple with their cash gifts and to extend their personal wishes. Parents, relatives and close friends are expected to come forth first, followed by the rest of the guests, the attendants, and finally, the groom. On isolated occasions, the wishes themselves are extended in the form of a song, or “cvivat”, the content of which may be traditional or as extemporaneous in nature as the following example:

Recall, O my comrade,
What great pals we were,
How the both of us used to go
To the same house.

To the same house
And to the same girl,
And we’d never get home
Until daybreak.

When we got home
The neighbors would know everything;
They would point at us with their fingers and say.
“They’ll never get anywhere!”

And now you are getting married
While I’m just thinking about doing so.
I only feel sad
That I no longer have a home now.

I no longer have a house
Nor my own home;
All I do now is wander about aimlessly
Through distant, different places.

I think, O comrade,
I should now come to an end
So, musicians, strike up a vivat!
And with this cider I drink a toast unto you!

Ukrainian Folklore in Canada: An Immigrant Complex in Transition. Robert B. Klymasz. 1970. p. 85.

Interestingly enough, as I was reviewing some photographs I realized I had taken a snapshot of Walter’s grave during a visit to Fork River in 2015. He is buried in the Ukrainian cemetery. It’s too bad his little image plaque is missing.

Walter Pasternak. Born 1913. Died May 31, 1984.

Anastasia Masiowski’s songs and stories (Robert Klymasz fieldwork collection)

Robert Bohdan Klymasz (1936 – ) was born in Toronto in 1936 and is a Ukrainian-Canadian folklorist. He was the executive director of the Ukrainian Cultural and Educational Centre, an Adjunct Professor at the Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies, and a curator at the Museum of Civilization.

I highly recommend reading the following article, A Visit to the Ukrainian Museum and Library, by Thomas Prymak about his visit to the Oseredok in Winnipeg. His article talks about the treasured texts found there as well as his visits and chats with Ukrainian-Canadian scholars including Robert Klymasz.

The reason I’m sharing this information is because one of my cousins stumbled on to the Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives where our great-grandmother Anastasia Masiowski nee Kotlarchuk (1891-1976) has 32 songs and stories recorded when Robert Klymasz visited Fork River on July 20th, 1964. The archive indicates there are 36 songs and stories but 4 of them have been mislabeled as they are sung by Walter Pasternak.

There were 68 recordings made from Fork River that also included 21 recordings from Dokiia Rozmarynovych and 3 recordings from Mrs. Jacob Harrison. Additionally, Robert Klymasz recorded stories and songs from Plumas, Rorketon, and Winnipegosis as well as in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

You can listen to the entire collection on their website.

I’ve organized the 32 items alphabetically in the Cyrillic alphabet and linked each one separately.

I was curious as to whether any of the recordings were used in Robert Klymasz’ publications and I found 2 songs from my great-grandmother in his books which I pulled from the University of Manitoba’s Slavic Collection at the Elizabeth Dafoe Library. I’ve marked them in the chart for easy identification and included the musical notation and lyrics from the books in both English and Ukrainian.

It’s so interesting to hear my ancestor’s voice from beyond the grave!

There are additional records from the Robert Klymasz collection at the University of Manitoba’s archives that I’d like to pull in the future. I hope there are more translations of her songs and stories that just didn’t make it into a publication.

Romanized TitleCyrillic TitleLength
A zvidty hora, a zvidty druhaА звідти гора, а звідти друга2:30
A nash tsisar tsisarivnoА наш цісар цісарівно3:59
A ia v svoiei matusen’ky iedna iedno bulaА я в своєй матусеньки єдна єдно була1:34
Zhenyla mnia moia matyЖенила мня моя мати3:33
Zhuriu ia sie zhuriuЖурю я сє журю1:55
Kukharochko holubkoКухарочко, голубко0:40
My kryvomu tantsiМи кривому танці2:48
Ne teper (2) na hryby khodytyНе тепер (2) на гриби ходити0:47
Oi divchyna na hryby khodylaОй дівчина на гриби ходила2:03
Oi divchyno, divchynon’koОй дівчино, дівчинонько0:52
Oi dube dube kucheriavyiОй дубе дубе кучерявий4:10
Oi vyisie vinochkuОй вийсє віночку0:36
Oi letila zozulen’kaОй летіла зозуленька2:55
Oi na horon’tsi dvi zazulen’tsiОй на гороньці дві зазуленьці5:11
Oi popid hai zelenen’kyiОй попід гай зеленький13:58
Oi u L’vovi na rynochkuОй у Львові на риночку4:24
Oi tam na stavi na IordaniОй там на ставі на Йордані5:23
Oi tam v VyflyiemiОй там в Вифлиємі2:58
Oi chomu zh ty, Marusiu, ne placheshОй чому ж ти, Марусю, не плачеш1:25
Perepylyn’ko, ta i holovka bolyt’Перепилинько, та й головка болить1:35
Pereskochu voboloniuПерескочу воболоню1:15
Pid viknamy kalynaПід вікнами калина2:25
Po sadochku prokhodzhaieПо садочку проходжає4:46
Sydyt’ holub na dubochkuСидить голуб на дубочку1:02
Syn zamalo buv khoroshyiСин замало був хороший4:32
Story about Dovbushn/a1:58
Story about stupid Balan/a6:14
Ta i narvu ia lionuТа й нарву я льону2:46
Ta i shumila lishchynon’kaТа й шуміла ліщинонька0:33
Tam na horbochku tam vohon’ horeТам на горбочку там вогонь горе20:36
Khodyt zuchok po zuchyniХодит зучок по зучині0:28
Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives – Kule Folklore Centre, Faculty of Arts, University of Alberta.

1 Published in Ukrainian Folksongs from the Prairies. Complied under the direction of the collector with the participation of Andrij Hornjatkevyč, Bohdan Medwidsky, and Paula Prociuk. Collected by Robert B. Klymasz. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. University of Alberta. 1992.

2 Published in The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada. Robert B. Klymasz. Ottawa. 1970.

Old Country Songs

Nastja Masiowsky – Fork River, Manitoba – 20 July 1964

Old Country Songs. Song 12. Ukrainian Folksongs from the Prairies. 1992. p. 29.
Ой попiд гай зеленький
Ходить Довбуш молоденький.

На нiжечку налягає,
На топiр ся пiдпирає.

«Бiгом, хлопцi, бiгом, бiгом,
Западає стежка снiгом.

Та коби ми бай до Дэвiнки,
До Штефановоï жiнки.»

«На день добрий Штефанова,
Ой чи є твiй Штефан дома?»

«Ой нема Штефана вдома,
Ще вечеря не готова.»

«Ой чи вийдеш вiдтворяти,
Чи скажеш ся добувати?»

«Ой не вийду я втворяти,
Не скажу ся добувати.

В мене дсверi тисовiï,
В мене замки стальовiï.»

«Як пiдложу праве плече,
Не поможуть эамки твоï,
Не поможуть дверi твоï.»

Як пiдложив праве плече,
Його куля в саме серце.

«Ой ви хлопцi бай молодцi,
Вiэьмiть мене на топорцi.

Эамесiть м’я в Буковину,
Де-м ся вродив, най там эгину.

Було ходити та и буяти,
Суцi правди не скаэати.»
By the small green grove
Goes the young Dovbuš.

He limps on [one] foot
He rests on his ace as on a cane.

“Quickly, men, quickly, quickly,
Soon snow will fall and cover our path.

“Let’s make our way to Dzvinka,
To the wife of Štefan.

“Greetings, o wife of Štefan,
Is Štefan, your husband, home?”

“Štefan is not home yet,
The supper is not ready.”

“Will you open up willingly,
Or am I to force my way in?”

“I shall not open up,
Nor will I let you force yourself in.

“I have doors made of yew,
I have locks made of steel.”

“When I brace my shoulder against the door,
Your locks will not help,
Your doors will not help.”

When he braced his shoulder to the door,
A bullet hit him straight in the heart.

“O my men, you young stalwarts,
Take me up on on your axe [handles],

And take me to Bukovyna,
Let me die where I was born.

I should have gone roaming
Instead of telling that bitch the truth.”
Old Country Songs. Song 12. Ukrainian Folksongs from the Prairies. 1992. p. 29.
III. 3. The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada. 1970. p. 139.

NOTE: Singers often grope for the pitch and metre at the beginning of songs. If this song had had more verses, the singer would probably have established a triple metre throughout. The bar 4/8 time would then be sung in 38. [Kenneth Peacock.]

Там на горбочку там вогонь горе
Там дiвчина пироги варит.
А з стрiхи тиче на ïï пличе,
А з носа каптит, пироги мастит!
There on a hillhock burns a fire,
And a maiden’s there cooking dumplings.
The thatched roof is leaking onto her shoulder
And from her nose it’s dripping and buttering the dumplings.
III. 3. The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada. 1970. p. 139.

This is a typical ditty sung by the mummers to underscore Malanka’s abilities as a housekeeper and cook.

Jacob Bear (1839-1925)

Over the past year, my attention has returned to research on my mother’s family and I’ve been lucky enough to make some progress during the last several months. I’d like to share the research I have complied about Jacob Bear (1839-1925) who was my maternal 2nd great-grandfather.

I have been working on this post over the course of the fall and winter and realized I just have to post what I have rather than continue to dig without reporting on my progress given how much material I have collected. This is the largest file I have on any relative, I can’t believe how much wonderful information was out there just waiting to be found!

After exchanging emails with family and a visit to Saskatchewan in the later summer, I learned of my connection to Jacob Bear, a Swampy Cree interpreter from the St. Peter’s settlement. I am still gathering information about St. Peter’s but unfortunately much of what I have read is about the community after Jacob and his family left the area which will is still useful but more for the work I am doing on Jacob’s parents and siblings.

Reproduction of “St. Peters Mission Red River,” from Bishop Mountain’s Journal. Isaac Cowie fonds. 1987/390/114. Manitoba ArchIves. 1845.
Isaac Cowie fonds.

I secured copies of these postcards from the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Isaac Cowie fonds. There was a handwritten note beside the postcard above which I haven’t fully figured out even after fiddling with the note in Photoshop. If anyone can figure out the rest of the message, let me know, it would be much appreciated!

Reproduction of “St. John’s Church & School, 1820/3” from Rev. John West’s Journal. Isaac Cowie fonds. 1987/390/110. Manitoba Archives. ca. 1823.

The protestant church and mission school at the Red River Colony. 1823. From Rev. John West’s Journal, 1820/23. Afterwards St. John’s Cathedral and College.

I was able to locate Jacob in census records from 1906 to 1921 although these records only account for the years closer to the end of his life. With my increasing familiarity with the treaty annuity lists, I also found Jacob and his family in records related to Cowessess and Ochapowace from 1874 to 1909.

With the assistance from my cousin’s book, Pimatisiwin Wawiyekamaw: A History of Jacob Bear and the Round Lake Mission, by Melissa Antony and Sharon Bear, I learned of Jacob’s connection to the Hudson’s Bay Company and the Round Lake Mission.

Furthermore, I have just begun diving into records from Indian Affairs. I have paid several visits the Hudson’s Bay Archive to obtain copies of records based upon his Hudson’s Bay Company biography sheet. These were so helpful in creating a timeline for Jacob and his family.

Jacob Bear originally came from the St. Peter’s settlement in Manitoba (Anthony and Bear, 2019, p. 56). He was born in or around 1839, a fact I have tentatively confirmed after I visited the HBC Archives to access the Extracts from registers of baptisms, marriages and burials in Rupert’s Land sent to the Governor and Committee. I was provided access to a digital version of a baptism from October 13th, 1839, for Jacob Bear who was born to Thomas Bear (1801 or 1810-1892) and Isabel Beardy (1820-abt 1899) from the Red River Settlement.

HBCA E-4-1a fo-163. Manitoba Archives. 1839.
When BaptizedChild’s Christian NameParents’ Christian NamesParents’ SurnameAbodeTrade or ProfessionBy whom the ceremony was performed
October 13th. 1676.Jacob son ofThomas and IsabelBearRed River SettlementSettlersWm. Cockran
HBCA E-4-1a fo-163. Manitoba Archives. 1839.

I have reviewed Census returns for the Red River Settlement but of course these only record the name of the head of household which was Thomas Bear. In the 1838 Red River Census, Thomas Bear is living in the Indian Village with an unnamed wife and son. Additionally, the document states they are living with George Beardy who I believe is Isabel’s father.

I am hesitant to confirm the census records for the fact that there should be 2 sons listed in Under 16 Sons and not just 1, but the time, location, and name are all there. The pattern carries over to the following census records for 1838, 1840, and 1843.

Bear, Thomas. 1838 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives. 1838 HBCA-E5-9-036.
NameCountryReligionMarried MenMarried WomenUnder 16 SonsTotal
Bear, ThomasNativeProtestant1113
Bear, Thomas. 1838 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives.

In 1840, Thomas Bear was living in the Swampy village with an unnamed wife and 2 sons under the age of 16. He also was recorded as having a canoe at the time.

Bear, Thomas. 1840 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives. 1840 HBCA-E5-10-036.
NameCountryReligionMarried MenMarried WomenUnder 16 SonsTotal
Bear, ThomasNativeProtestant1124
Bear, Thomas. 1840 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives.

In 1843, Thomas Bear and family were living in the Swampy village with 419 other persons. He has 1 house which housed an unnamed wife, 2 sons under the age of 16, and 1 daughter under the age of 15. There were also 2 stables, 1 cow, and 2 calves.

Bear, Thomas. 1843 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives. 1843 HBCA-E5-11-033.
NameCountryReligionMarried MenMarried WomenUnder 16 SonsUnder 15 DaughtersTotal
Bear, ThomasNativeProtestant11215
Bear, Thomas. 1843 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives.

When I visited the archives, I was able to collect information about Thomas Bear and family for 1847 and 1849, but that is as far as I was able to collect Red River Census records.

NameCountryReligionMarried MenMarried WomenUnder 16 SonsUnder 15 DaughtersTotal
Bear, ThomasRupert’s LandProtestant11237
Bear, Thomas. 1847 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives.
NameCountryReligionMarried MenMarried WomenUnder 16 SonsUnder 15 DaughtersTotal
Bear, ThomasProtestant11327
Bear, Thomas. 1849 Red River Census. Manitoba Archives.

I would like to do a separate entry on Thomas Bear (1801 or 1810-1892) as I found a very interesting letter written in 1883 by him to one of his daughters, Isabella, that was also in the Manitoba Archives. It was donated by a relative who was living in Thunder Bay in the early 1990s.

Jacob had at least nine other siblings confirmed in a letter from the Manitoba Archives–Thomas (1836-???), Robert (1837-???), Isabella (1842-???), Elizabeth (1844-???), Sophia (1846-???), George (1848-???), Joseph (1851-???), and Mary Joan (1859-???). There is also mention of a son named Peter (1853-1943) but the Archives does not report on a baptismal date for him.

Jacob’s wife was Nancy Thomas (1839-???) who was recorded as an English-speaking Swampy Cree in Isaac Cowie’s book which I speak more of below, and whose baptism record is also tentatively found in the same Extracts from registers of baptisms as mentioned above. If this is the correct Nancy, she was born to Thomas and Frances Thomas and baptized on July 24th, 1839.

HBCA E-4-1a fo-162. Manitoba Archives. 1839.
When BaptizedChild’s Christian NameParents’ Christian NamesSurnameAbodeTrade or ProfessionBy whom the ceremony was performed
July 24th. 1654.Nancy daughter ofThomas and FrancesThomasIndian SettlementSettlersWm. Cockran
HBCA E-4-1a fo-162. Manitoba Archives. 1839.

Since the digitized collection ends in 1851, I was unable to confirm a record for their marriage though I did not have the chance to access whether I could gain access to records after 1851 when I visited the archives.

Jacob and Nancy’s oldest daughter, Sophie Bear (1858-1888) was born in 1858 in Manitoba, and based on their age and the birth year of their daughter, I imagine the couple likely married in or around 1857.

Jacob entered the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company at Fort Garry on March 15th, 1860. He would have been around twenty-one years old and started in an unskilled position as a middleman that worked the middle of the boat as per the Hudson’s Bay Company glossary.

He was in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company from March 15th, 1860 to June 1st, 1871. Positions he held included middleman; trader and labourer; trader and runner; trader and c.; interpreter, and a freeman. A list of his service can be found on page 31 in B239-U-2, a document available through the HBC archives, known as the Engagement Register.

Engagement Register. B239-U-2. HBC Archives.
No.Name.Parish.Capacity.Where engaged and date.Terms of years engaged for service.Date contract expires.Deserted, dead, or home.Date.Wages.Amount for extra services.Remarks.
152Bear, JacobNativeMiddlemanF. GarryMar 15 18603Jun 1186320
Trader and labourerQu’Appelle PostApr 24 18632Jun 1186523
Trader and runnerFort PellyJul 1 18652Jun 11867252p tea and sugar.
TraderQu’Appelle PostApr 2 18672Jun 1186930
InterpreterQu’Appelle PostApr 17 18692Jun 11871Free187135
Engagement Register. B239-U-2. HBC Archives.

In addition to the record from the Engagement Register, I’ve also located Jacob in more HBC records than what is listed on his biography sheet. I have found him in the Servants Accounts, District Statements, List of Servants, and Minutes of the Council. There are too many documents to include in this post but I will share a copy of a few.

Servants Accounts. 1870-1871. Manitoba Archives. B239-G-47. p. 27-28.
Minutes of the Council. Winter Arrangements. 1870-1871. Manitoba Archives. B239-K-3. p. 228.

The posts where Jacob served were Fort Qu’Appelle, Fort Pelly, Old Wife’s Creek, and Woody Hills which were all within the Swan River district. I have pulled some information about Fort Qu’Appelle that I think would be of interest from Isaac Cowie’s book which was published in 1913 called, The Company of Adventurers: A Narrative of Seven Years in the Service of the Hudson’s Bay Company during 1867-1874.

Hudson’s Bay Company’s Fort Qu’Appelle in 1867. Isaac Cowie fonds. 1987/390/130. Manitoba Archives. 1867.

Fort Qu’Appelle.

The fort was an enclosure of about one hundred and fifty feet square, the stockades were framed of squared poplar logs, serving as foundations and plating, supported by posts every fifteen feet. These posts were grooved on each side, and into these grooves were inserted thick slabs and planks, with the sawn surface outside. The height of the stockade was about twelve feet. The fort faced north; and in the middle was a gate amply wide for laden carts to enter between its double doors. The stockade was well whitewashed, as were all the buildings within it.

At the rear of the square, facing the front gate, was the master’s house, forty by thirty feet, one story, with light high loft above, built like the stockade, but with squared logs instead of slabs, and thickly thatched with beautiful yellow straw—the best roof to keep in heat as well as to keep it out that I have ever lived under. This and the interpreter’s house were the only buildings in the place which had glass windows, which consisted each of an upper and lower sash, with six panes of eight and one-half by seven and one-half inch glass, all the other windows in the establishment being of buffalo parchment.

The west end of this building was used as the office and hall for the reception of Indians transacting business and making speeches. My bedroom opened off this. The east end contained the messroom and the master’s apartments. Behind and connected by a short passage with “the big house” was another building, divided by log partitions into a kitchen and cook’s bedroom, and into a nursery for Mr. McDonald’s children and their nurse.

The rooms were all floored, lined and ceiled with white poplar, tongued and grooved and planed plank and boards—all hand-work. The furniture was also all made on the spot out of white poplar, which is a fine wood for inside work, and makes beautifully white flooring. The Company only supplied a few one-pound tins of paint to adorn the head of a dogsled or carriole, or perhaps to cover the folding board used by grandees in camp in place of a dining table, or maybe the wooden frame for the beaded mossbag, which so beneficially served the purpose of the rocking cradle of civilization. So, Mr. McDonald had painted his own quarters at his own expense, and the rest of the house, which represented in the eyes of nearly all the Indians who visited it the last word in European architectural art, was left in the unadorned beauty of the native wood.

On the west side of the square there was a long and connected row of dwelling houses of the same construction as the master’s, divided into five houses by log walls carried up to the ridge pole, and each with an open chimney of its own for cooking and heating. In the officers’ quarters only where there any iron stoves. The Company had provided a large sheet-iron one, made at Fort Pelly, for the office, and Mr. McDonald had bought a small Carron stove for his apartments, while Mrs. McDonald owned the American cook stove, imported from St. Paul, Minnesota, in the kitchen. The immense open fireplaces and chimneys were all made of mud. They provided a splendid system of ventilation and made a cheerful blaze. In fact, the blaze was required for lighting purposes, for tallow was too much in demand in the making of pemmican to permit of its being used luxuriously in making candles merely to light “the men’s houses.”

Each of these five houses in the row was about thirty by thirty feet. The floors were of planed tongued and grooved plank; the walls were smoothly plastered with clay and whitewashed, and except in the interpreter’s house, which was ceiled and had two bedrooms partitioned off with boards, the means were open or covered by poles, on which rested buffalo parchments or dry rawhides to form a ceiling. The doors were sometimes of parchment, stretched on a wooden frame, but those of the interpreter’s house and the workshop, at each end of the row, were of wood, and had big iron latches and locks, the others having only long, heavy wooden latches which opened by a thong through a hole in the door. The door was in the middle of the wall with a window on each side of it facing the square; there was none in the rear of the buildings. Although the parchment, if a good one, afforded a fair enough light, it hid from the inquisitive eyes of the women of the establishment what was going on in the middle of the fort, so that the peepholes in the parchment, left by the bullets which brought down the buffalo, were the coigns of vantage where, unseen themselves, the gossips of the post could observe everything going on in the square.

Directly opposite the row of men’s houses, on the other side of the square, was a row of similar construction and size, used as trading, fur and provision stores, with, at the south end, a room for the dairy, and at the north end a large one for dog, horse and ox harness and the equipments—called agrets—required for sleds and carts on the voyage. All these buildings had, of course, strong doors and locks, but none had a chimney, for the fear of fire in a fort where gunpowder was the chief article kept for trade was too great to permit of even the trading shop being heated in the coldest day in winter. This was the rule all over the country, and the men who defied the intense cold when travelling in the open used to dread the more intense cold which seemed to accumulate in the trading store, where one had to spend hours at a stretch writing down each item as the band of Indians brought in their credit slips from the master’s office.

To the right of the front gate stood the flagstaff, on which the British red ensign, with the white letters H.B.C. on its fly, was hoisted on Sundays and holidays, and in honor of the arrival and departure of visitors of importance and the brigades; and in the middle of the square was the fur-packing press with its long beam lever and huge slotted post into which it was inserted.

The duty of scrubbing their own and the big house and keeping the square clean, making a certain number of tracking shoes for the voyageurs, and of planting and harvesting potatoes, was all that was required of the women of the fort in exchange for the board and lodging furnished by the Company. At least once a week they turned out with rooms and raked the stuff or snow up in heaps, which were hauled outside by an ox hitched to a rawhide instead of a cart or sled, and which served the purpose better. The place was the abode of the numerous train-dogs, which wandered about loose; the square served as a corral in which to round up the horses and oxen required for a brigade; in it the sleds and carts were laden and unloaded, and big snowdrifts were often formed during the winter, so the women of the place where sometimes kept quite busy and furnished with plenty of good exercise. After a snowfall it was a pleasant sight to see them all, arrayed in bright colors, with cheerful faces and active limbs, enjoying themselves, assisted by their children, large and small, sweeping up the snow in piles for half-witted Geordie Gills to draw out, if some one did not, while his back was turned to another teasing him, tip Geordie’s load over to have the fun of hearing him denounce the perpetrator in phrases peculiar to himself.

Behind the stockades was a kitchen garden of the same size as the fort, protected by pointed pickets set in the ground and about ten feet high. Again, behind the garden was a field, fenced with rails, about ten acres in area, one-half of which was used for potatoes and the other half for barley.

To the west of the garden there was the hay-yard, and, facing the yard, a row of old log buildings on a ridge of a few feet elevation, which had first been used as store and dwellings, but had been converted into a stable and cattle byres.

Outside, within a few feet of the north-east corner of the stockade, stood a long ice-house, with a deep cellar, in which were preserved fresh meat and fish in summer, and where frozen fish was stored in winter.

The People of the Fort.

The regular complement of engaged servants of the company in the winter of 1867-68 were:
Archibald McDonald, clerk (of thirteen years’ service).
Isaac Cowie, apprentice clerk.
John McNab Ballanden McKay, interpreter.
William Kennedy, apprentice interpreter.
Nepapeness (Night Bird) Steersman, a Saulteau.
Jacob Bear, bowsman. (A Swampy Cree.)
George Sandison, watchman.
George Sandison, jun., middleman.
William Sandison, carpenter, at Wood Mountain.
George Thorne, cattlekeeper, at Wood Mountain.
Oliver Flemmand, voyageur.
(All these, except Mr. McDonald and myself were natives.)
Gowdie Harper, laborer, from Shetland, in 1864.
John Dryer, laborer, from Orkney, in 1866.
Alexander McAuley, laborer, from Lews Island, in 1867.
Alaister McLean, laborer, from Lews Island, in 1867.

The monthly employees were:
Alexander Fisher, horse guard, at the east end of the lakes.
Joseph Robillard, cartwright and carpenter.
Charles Bird, Cree, voyageur.
Henry Jordan, laborer.
Charles Davis, laborer.
The two latter were deserters from the American troops at Fort Buford, Missouri River.

Besides these there were a number of natives hired as “temporary servants” and others occasionally by the trip or by the day, as the occasion required.

The families of those having rations and quarters from the Company were, as far as I can remember:
Mrs. Archibald McDonald, and sons. John A. and Donald H., with their nursemaid, Mary Adams.
Mrs. McKay, with children Sarah, George and Archie.
Nepapeness’ wife, Necanapeek (the leading woman), with son, Kenowas, and a baby daughter.
Jacob Bear’s wife, Nancy (an English-speaking Swampy like himself), and two children.
G. Sandison’s wife, Mary Whitford, with daughter, Mary Jane, and son, William.
W. Sandison’s wife, Nancy Finlayson (no children).
G. Thorne’s three children—Julie and two boys.
O. Flemmand’s wife, Helen Brule, and two sons.
J. Robillard’s wife, LaLouise (no children).
C. Bird’s wife, Caroline Sandison, and child.
Cree widow, “Curly Head,” with three children.
Alexander Fisher’s allowance, two rations.
Thirty train dogs, each two-thirds of a man’s rations.

At the fort the daily allowance for each child was one-quarter and for a woman one-half that for a man, which was twelve pounds fresh buffalo meat, or six pounds dried buffalo meat, or three pounds pemmican, or six rabbits, or six prairie chickens, or three large white fish, or three large or six small ducks, besides potatoes and some milk for the children, and occasionally dried berries, with a weekly allowance of tallow or fat. Rough barley was also given to those who cared to prepare it for themselves.

Daily to feed the establishment required, in the form of fresh buffalo meat, the tongues, bosses, ribs and fore and hind quarters of three animals, for the head, neck, shanks and inside were not considered worth freighting from the plains to the fort. The product of three buffalo in the concentrated form of pemmican was equivalent to the daily issues of fresh meat.

Cowie, 1913, p. 211-216.

The following text was type-written just beneath the image of Fort Qu’Appelle in a scrapbook that is part of the Cowie fonds.

In 1877 Mr Archibald McDonald of Fort Ellice, requested Mr George Mowat, of the H.B.Store at White Mud River, to send up a man to paint Fort Ellice, which was being renovated. Mr Mowat engaged on the spot a remittance man named Nelson, who had the local reputation of being a painter. On his arrival at Fort Ellice it was discovered that he knew nothing of the trade of a house painter, but was an artist in water colours. So Mr Nelson painted Fort Ellice and Fort Qu’Appelle-but on paper in water colours, and the photograph on page 22 is a copy of his picture of Fort Qu’Appelle in 1877. The upright pickets are those put up by Cowie in 1873, the building in the left hand corner is one brought from Touchwood Hills and put up by Cowie about the same time as a shop. The thatched roofed building -logs- in the right hand corner is the remains of the row of men’s dwellings seen in the picture on page 23 as in 1867.

Isaac Cowie fonds. Manitoba Archives.
Fort Qu’Appelle. Isaac Cowie fonds. 1987/390/129. Manitoba Archives. 1877.

The Hudson’s Bay Company biography sheet references Isaac Cowie’s book and states that Jacob is mentioned in several places. Isaac Cowie joined the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1867 and served as a clerk at Fort Qu’Appelle where Jacob was also stationed. There are a number of stories, in fact, too many for me to include in this post so I will create another as they speak to Jacob’s character.

“Jacob Bear and his wife were well instructed Christians from St. Peters, both speaking, reading and writing English, also syllabic,” (Cowie, 1913, p. 222).

The book also states that Jacob wintered in the lodge of Ookemah, Chief of Qu’Appelle Saulteaux, from 1867 to 1868. Furthermore, Isaac wrote that Jacob was a “bowsman” at Fort Qu’Appelle during the same time as he was a trader and c.

In Pimatisiwin Wawiyekamaw, Melissa and Sharon wrote that Jacob first went to Winnipeg to learn English in a program being offered to train First Nations peoples to work for the Hudson’s Bay Company (Anthony and Bear, 2019, p. 56). After concluding his contract for the Hudon’s Bay Company in 1871, Jacob acted as an interpreter for the Indian Agent at Okanese. I have been unable to locate any mention of Jacob in records related to Okanese but this is entirely possible given he was a free agent at the time and last acted as an interpreter.

Also written in Pimatisiwin Wawiyekamaw, Jacob and family had been around the Cowessess Band around the signing of Treaty 4 (September 15th, 1874) and consequently became band members at Cowessess First Nation. This is an interesting note as based on the Treaty annuity records, Jacob Bear was a member of the Kakishcheway (Kakisiwew) Band from 1874 to 1885.

Although I don’t find Jacob by name in the 1874 or 1875 accounts, I found in the 1876 record he was paid $181 for the years 1874-1876. I’m not sure why he was paid an extra $56 when each person was to receive $5 respectively. Based on the account below, Jacob received $40 for 1874 for 8 persons (himself, a wife, and 7 children), $40 for 1875 for 8 persons (himself, a wife, and 7 children), and $45 for 9 persons (himself, a wife, and 8 children) but that only accounts for $125.

What could the extra $56 be given for–services to Indian Affairs? If anyone has an idea what this could be for please leave a comment.

Kakishiway’s Band. Indian Affairs, Annuity Paylists: C-7145. Image 97.
n/a889Jacob Bear117181
Kakishiway’s Band. Indian Affairs, Annuity Paylists: C-7145. Image 97.

It wasn’t until later that Jacob Bear became a member of the Cowessess Band, and then switched back to the Kakishcheway Band in 1893 which had been renamed the Ochapowace Band. The switching back and forth between bands is very interesting and I have a letter by the Indian Agent which talks about the switch in 1893 though no letter to account for the first switch to Cowessess in the 1880s.

Supposedly, his first role on Cowessess was as an interpreter for the Marieval Residential School, however, he was pushed out by the Catholic priest because Jacob had strong protestant beliefs (Antony and Bear, 2019 p. 56).

In addition of his work as an interpreter and missionary and with the Round Lake Mission, Jacob was also a farmer like many of those who lived in the Crooked Lake Agency. He is mentioned by name in Indian Affairs Reports for the years 1883, 1884, 1886, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903. There are too many files for me to post so once again I will pick a few records to share in this post.

Jacob Bear has commenced at Yellow Calf’s old place, and has broken up more land.

Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended 31st December 1883. p. 27-28.

The band had made great progress in farming since my visit last year. They lad a large area of land in potatoes and wheat, the former promised very good crops; the best I have seen this season; the wheat was short and much choked by wild buckwheat; the turnips had been destroyed by the fly. Their land is well fenced, but their houses are the poorest description of huts. Jacob Bear, an educated and intelligent Indian, was in charge, as acting sub-instructor, and was doing very well.

Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended 31st December 1884. p. 27-28.

Round Lake Boarding-school.
I inspected this school on the 9th and 10th February. The staff consists as follows: Rev. Hugh McKay, principal; Mrs. McKay, matron; N. McKenzie, teacher; Jacob Bear, farmer; Helen Gaddie, cook; Hilda Sahlmark, housemaid; Eliza Bear, laundress; Peter Elkinson; fireman, in winter attending to furnaces.

Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended 30th June 1893. p. 446.

Jacob Bear, No. 116 – House and stables in the valley, near Rev. Mr. McKay’s boarding-school. The house is 20 x 20, rough-cast walls and shingled roof, up-stair rooms, good floors and doors, no open chimney; house well furnished and clean. Has wagon, mower, rake, and a good supply of smaller implements and tools, all private property. Store-house, hen-house, creamery, new lean-to kitchen; his daughter was busy knitting. Horse stable, 18 x 18, room for sixteen horses; cattle stable No. 1, 18 x 18, eleven stanchions; cattle stable No. 2, 18 x 18, the last one for younger cattle; has twenty head in all. Some good pigs were noticed. A thrifty-looking, homestead, and all had the appearance of plenty.

Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended 30th June 1896. p. 359.

Jacob Bear, Casokoowinan and Pierre Belanger have the best houses, neatly kept and furnished.

Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended 30th June 1903. p. 381.
Indian Affairs. RG 10, Volume 3759, File 32025-2. 1886.
Name of IndianWheatOatsBarleyPotatoesTurnipsPeaArea of land utilizedRemarks
Jacob Bear10321 1/41/21/416 1/2Good
Indian Affairs. RG 10, Volume 3759, File 32025-2. 1886.

So far, I have identified the following children of Jacob and Nancy:
Sophie Bear (1858-1888) married Michel Lavallée (1855-1941)
Isabelle Elizabeth Bear (1869-???) married Sam Cyr (1865-1932)
Sara Marie Alphonsine Bear (1871-???) married Louis Henry Allary (1873-1913)
Henry Bear (1872-1910) married Mary Ann McKinnon (1879-1978)
Andre Bear (1874-???) *may be one of the unknown boys who died in 1884 and 1900
Marguerite Bear (???-???) married Joseph Lavallée (1884-???)
Unknown girl (???-1898) married Pookaysacase/William Petwawenin
Unknown girl married unknown man
Unknown boy (???-1884)
Unknown boy (???-1900)

I found mention in the Treaty annuity records the marriage of an unnamed daughter in 1884, marriage of another unnamed daughter in 1897 to Pookaysacase/William Petwawenin, and later the unnamed daughter’s death in 1898. I haven’t been able to identify her name, however, I know there are tentatively records related to her out there–most likely in the Round Lake protestant church records. Once I get my hands on these records I am confident it will solve a good handful of mysteries.

The imminent death of his unnamed daughter is mentioned in a letter to Rev. Professor Beard on March 21st, 1898. “I lost my grandson aged 18 years two weeks ago and my daughter has been very ill and she shall not live long. Every night, we are afraid she shall not see the morning. We feel much when we have to put our children in the grave.” (Antony and Bear, 2020, p. 91)

Based on the date, I believe the grandson Jacob is referring to in this letter is Jeremie Lavallée (1878-1898) who was buried on March 14th, 1898. He was the son of their eldest daughter, Sophie Bear (1858-1888) who married Michel Lavallée (1855-1941).

Jacob and Nancy also suffered the death of two unnamed sons, one in 1884 and another in 1900. It’s possible one of these deaths could be that of Andre (1874-???) A third son, Henry, died sometime in 1910.

The comment Jacob makes about feeling the death of children is more keenly felt with the deaths of the children of their daughter, my great-grandmother, Sarah Bear (1871-???). She married Louis Henry Allary (1873-1913) and I have documented fifteen children while the couple lost at least eight in childhood or young adulthood:
Albert James Allary (1894-1914)
Sara Virginie Allary (1895-1918)
Louisa Ann Allary (1897-1918)
Louis Maurice Allary (1900-1918)
Christine Allary (1902-1916)
Marie Marguerite Allary (1905-1921)
Marie Josephine Allary (1907-1907)
Valentine Allary (1908-1908)

While I do not have the death records for these great aunts and uncles, I imagine their deaths were due to influenza and tuberculosis. There is mention in the 1919 Indian Affairs Report that there were very heavy mortality in Saskatchewan communities due to the influenza epidemic. The illness left victims in a delicate state of health and in some locations, the illness was accompanied by virulent bronchial pneumonia.

In his later years, Jacob and his wife Nancy lived near Broadview, Saskatchewan with their adopted grand-daughter Lena Petwawenin (1905-???). Lena was the daughter of William Petwawenin (???-???) who had married the widow of No 75 Pasqua Band (???-1906) in 1901 after the death of his previous wife, the unnamed daughter of Jacob and Nancy Thomas. After the unnamed wife died in 1906, it looks like Jacob and Nancy took Lena in.

1906 Census. Saskatchewan, East Assiniboine, Sub-District 50, p. 2.

In 1911 there was no change to the living situation, Jacob and Nancy still had Lena under their roof. She had spent 10 months at school, most likely the Round Lake Residential School. Interestingly enough, the record states neither Jacob nor Nancy could read or write but this is incorrect.

1911 Census. Saskatchewan, Qu’Appelle, Sub-District 31, p. 11.

By 1916, Jacob and Nancy were once again living alone on the Ochapowace Reserve. Lena was most likely at the Round Lake Residential School though her name is not included in the 1916 Census record of the school. Jacob’s profession is listed as missionary on Indian Reserves.

1916 Census. Saskatchewan, Indian Reserves, p. 16.

Nothing had changed by 1921, Jacob and Nancy were living alone on the Ochapowace Reserve. His occupation was listed as farmer.

1921 Census. Saskatchewan, Qu’Appelle, Sub-District 45. Crooked Lake Indian Agency, p. 1.

Jacob Bear died in July 30, 1925, in Broadview, Saskatchewan. I have been unable to find a death date for his wife Nancy (1839-???) but I assume it occurred in or around the Crooked Lake Agency.


HBC Archives Biography Sheet. Filename: Bear, Jacob (fl. 1860-1871) DA 22/10/90 ; May/99/mhd ; Rev. PC May/0.

Cowie, I. 1913, “The Company of Adventurers”, Toronto, Wm. Briggs, pp. 214-215, 222, 261-262,0 352-355.

Melissa Antony, M. and Bear, S. 2019, “Pimatisiwin Wawiyekamaw: A History of Jacob Bear and the Round Lake Mission.”

Treaty Annuity List Reels C-7136 to C-7139 and T-7139

In February of this year I wrote about the use of Treaty Annuity Lists in researching my Indigenous ancestors. I had linked to a blog post on where the writer identified what was on each reel hosted on but the post has since been deleted or moved.

I’ve created an index of indexes on reels C-7136 to C-7139 from 1871 to 1909 when the lists end. Reel T-7139 are scans of Letterbooks from Fort Saskatchewan from 1888-1896. The information I’ve recorded are of the reel number, the image number, the date, and the Treaty information that can be found. I’ve also taken the step to link directly to the index’s permalink.

I wish such a list had been around when I first started using the annuity lists. It would have beat the man hours I put in scrolling through the thousands of pages looking for the communities of interest I wanted to read.

ReelImage #DateTreaty
C-71357-818751; 2; 3; 5
C-71358-918761; 2; 3; 5
C-7135369-37018771; 2; 3; 5
C-7135537-53818781; 2; 3; 5
C-7135711-71218791; 2; 3; 5
C-7135871-87218801; 2; 3; 5
C-71351036-103718811; 2; 3; 5
C-71351199-120018821; 2; 3; 5
C-71351371-137218831; 2; 3; 5
C-71351528-153018841; 2; 3; 5
C-71366-818841; 2; 3; 5
C-7136173-17518851; 2; 3; 5
C-7136402-40318861; 2; 3; 5
C-7136637-63918871; 2; 3; 5
C-7136878-87918881; 2; 3; 5
C-71361072-107418891; 2; 3; 5
C-71361290-129118901; 2; 3; 5
C-71361488-148918911; 2; 3; 5
C-71376-818911; 2; 3; 5
C-7137140-14118921; 2; 3; 5
C-7137358-35918931; 2; 3; 5
C-7137579-58018941; 2; 3; 5
C-7137809-81018951; 2; 3; 5
C-71371059-106018961; 2; 3; 5
C-71371299-130018971; 2; 3; 5
C-71371535-153618981; 2; 3; 5
C-71387-918981; 2; 3; 5
C-7138242-24318991; 2; 3; 5
C-7138504-50519001; 2; 3; 5
C-7138768-76919011; 2; 3; 5
C-71381022-102319021; 2; 3; 5
C-71381271-127219031; 2; 3; 5
C-71381508-150919041; 2; 3; 5
C-71396-719041; 2; 3; 5
C-7139175-17619051; 2; 3; 5
C-7139428-42919061; 2; 3; 5
C-7139660-66119071; 2; 3; 5
C-7139890-89119081; 2; 3; 5
C-71391134-113519091; 2; 3; 5
T-71391888-1896Letterbooks from Fort Saskatchewan

Kahkewistahaw’s Treaty Annuity List 1874-1909

I have created an index of Kahkewistahaw’s Treaty Annuity Lists from 1874 to 1909 found on reels C-7145 to C-7153.

The information below is of the reel number, the image number, the name of the Band, where the annuity was paid, the date, the Treaty numbers recorded, the page number in the book, and any notes about the list. I would like to revisit the list at a later date to include a permalink for each year.

Although these lists often only included the name of the person taking the annuity payment, I found it very helpful in my research.

The Treaty Annuity List reels can be found here:

ReelImage #BandPaid atDateTreaty #sPagesNotes
C-714519-20KahwistahawQu’Appelle18741-654-6No names
C-714542-44KakiiwistahawQu’Appelle18751-6547-49No names
C-7145118KakeewistahawFort Walsh1876-09-011-65169
C-71451183KahkeewistahawCrooked Lake1882-09-221-4743
C-71451471-1472KahkeewistahaCrooked Lakes1883-10-061-6152-53
C-714696-98KakewistahawCrooked Lakes1884-07-281-8449-50
C-7146371-373KakewistahawCrooked Lakes1885-10-101-7042-44
C-7146774-777KakewistahawReserve No 72 Crooked Lakes18861-7651-54Date not recorded
C-71461281-1283KakewistahawCrooked Lake1887-07-131-8454-56
KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1888-07-251-8692-95
C-7147705-712KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1889-07-161-91108-114
C-71471195-1202KahkewisahawCrooked Lake1890-07-171-94175-182
C-7148114-121KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1891-10-071-97246-261
C-7148555-562KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1892-10-061-99109-116
C-7148985-988KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1893-10-051-100187-194
C-71481437-1446KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1894-11-031-107231-248
C-7149317-325KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1895-10-171-110252-269
C-7149775-779KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1896-11-071-113107-111
C-71491229-1233KahkewistahawCrooked Lake1897-07-141-114109-113
C-715083-86KahkewistahawReserve, Crooked Lake1898-07-141-11699-102
C-7150535-538KahkewistahawCrooked Lake Agency1899-07-12&131-118226-233
C-71501026-1029KahkewistahawCrooked Lake Agency1900-07-191-119222-229
C-71501578-1581KahkeewistahawCrooked Lake Agency1901-07-17&181-121206-213
C-7151548-552KahkewistahawReserve No 721902-07-151-12295-99
C-71511102-1105KahkewistahawReserve, Crooked Lake Agency1903-07-151-122206-213
C-715298-101KahkewistahawReserve, Crooked Lake Agency1904-07-141-123188-195
C-7152680-683KahkewistahawReserve No 71, Crooked Lake Agency1905-07-121-123186-193
C-71521235-1238KahkewistahawOchapowace’s Reserve1906-07-111-123156-163
C-7153813-816KahkewistahawCrooked Lake Agency Office1908-07-152-126206-213
C-71531442-1444KahkewistahawCrooked Lake Agency1909-07-142-128202-207

Cowessess’ Treaty Annuity List 1874-1909

I have created an index of Cowessess’ Treaty Annuity Lists from 1874 to 1909 found on reels C-7145 to C-7153.

The information below is of the reel number, the image number, the name of the Band, where the annuity was paid, the date, the Treaty numbers recorded, the page number in the book, and any notes about the list. I would like to revisit the list at a later date to include a permalink for each year.

Although these lists often only included the name of the person taking the annuity payment, I found it very helpful in my research.

The Treaty Annuity List reels can be found here:

ReelImage #BandPaid atDateTreaty #sPagesNotes
C-714530-31CowwecessQu’Appelle18741-4022-23No names
C-714554-55CowwecessQu’Appelle18751-4066-67No names
C-7145113CowwecessFort Walsh1876-09-01n/a158-159
C-7145125-126Little Childn/a1876n/a179-181
C-7145454-456CowwecessFort Walsh1879-08-27n/a29-31
C-7145716-718CowecessMaple Creek Cypress Hills1880-08-021-10841-43
C-7145904-906CowessMaple Creek1881-07-161-11022-24
C-71451185-1186Little ChildsCrooked Lake1882-09-222-10945-46
C-71451473-1475CowweessCrooked Lake1883-10-041-7354-56
C-714692-94Cowesess or Little Childsn/a1884-07-261-9645-47
C-7146367-370Little ChildsCrooked Lakes1885-10-081-10638-41
C-7146778-782CowecessReserve No 71 Crooked Lakes18861-11255-59Date not recorded
C-71461284-1288CowesessCrooked Lake1887-07-141-11257-61
C-7147236-240CowesessCrooked Lake1888-07-251-11596-100
C-7147713-722CowesessCrooked Lake1889-07-131-124115-124
C-71471203-1213CowesessCrooked Lake1890-07-181-127183-193
C-7148122-132CowesessCrooked Lake1891-10-081-144262-283
C-7148563-574CowesessCrooked Lake1892-10-071-147118-119
C-7148989-994CowesessCrooked Lake1893-10-061-149195-206
C-71481447-1458CowesessCrooked Lake1894-11-051-155249-272
C-7149326-338CowesessCrooked Lake1895-10-181-165272-297
C-7149780-786CowesessCrooked Lake1896-11-091-171112-118
C-71491234-1240CowesessCrooked Lake1897-07-14&151-173115-121
C-715087-92CowesessReserve, Crooked Lake1898-07-152-175103-108
C-7150539-544CowesessCrooked Lake Agency1899-07-12&132-175234-245
C-71501030-1035CowesessCrooked Lake Agency1900-07-192-177230-239
C-71501582-1584CowesessCrooked Lake Agency1901-07-17&18120-177214-223Missing pages
C-7151554-558CowesessReserve No 731902-07-162-178101-105
C-71511106-1111CowesessReserve, Crooked Lake Agency1903-07-162-184216-227
C-7152102-107CowesessReserve, Crooked Lake Agency1904-07-142-189197-207
C-7152684-688CowesessReserve No 73, Crooked Lake Agency1905-07-132-189194-203
C-7153235-239CowesessCrooked Lake Agency Office1907-07-102-190191-200
C-7153817-821CowesessCrooked Lake Agency Office1908-07-152-190214-223
C-71531445-1449CowesessCrooked Lake Agency1909-07-142-193210-219

Chacachas’ Treaty Annuity List 1874-1884

I have created an index of Chacachas’ Treaty Annuity Lists from 1874 to 1884 found on reels C-7145 to C-7146.

The information below is of the reel number, the image number, the name of the Band, where the annuity was paid, the date, the Treaty numbers recorded, the page number in the book, and any notes about the list. I would like to revisit the list at a later date to include a permalink for each year.

Although these lists often only included the name of the person taking the annuity payment, I found it very helpful in my research.

The Treaty Annuity List reels can be found here:

ReelImage #BandPaid atDateTreaty #sPagesNotes
C-714529-30ChakachasQu’Appelle18741-4420-21No names
C-714553-54ChakachasQu’Appelle18751-4463-65No names
C-7145118ChacachasFort Walsh1876-09-01n/a168
C-7145263-264ChakachasOld Woman’s Creek1878-09-04n/a410-411
C-7145445-446ChacachasFort Walsh1879-09-09n/a20-21
C-7145676ChakachasFort Walsh1880-10-061-89
C-7145713ChakachasMaple Creek1880-08-0436-4538
C-71451181KawkeeshewayCrooked Lake1882-09-221-4541-441
C-71451476ChacachasCrooked Lakes1883-10-091-4157
C-714686-88KakishchewayCrooked Lakes1884-07-291-8439-422

1 Paid with Kakeesheway.

2 The bands of Chakachas and Kahkeesheway although paid separately up to 1882, are paid together in that year, separately in 1883, and together 1884 on. Chief Chakachas resigned as chief of his band in 1882, and the band was paid under the Chief Kahkeesheway until 1884, when he died and his son Ochowpowace was elected in his place.

Ochapowace’s Treaty Annuity List 1874-1909

I have created an index of Ochapowace’s Treaty Annuity Lists from 1874 to 1909 found on reels C-7145 to C-7153.

The information below is of the reel number, the image number, the name of the Band, where the annuity was paid, the date, the Treaty numbers recorded, the page number in the book, and any notes about the list. I would like to revisit the list at a later date to include a permalink for each year.

Although these lists often only included the name of the person taking the annuity payment, I found it very helpful in my research.

The Treaty Annuity List reels can be found here:

ReelImage #BandPaid atDateTreaty #sPagesNotes
C-714517-18KakiishiwayQu’Appelle18741-501-3No names
C-714542-43KakiishiwayQu’Appelle18751-5044-46No names
C-7145434-435Loud Voice KakishewayQu’Appelle and Fort Walsh1879-08-25n/a9-10
C-71451181KawkeeshewayCrooked Lake1882-09-221-4541-44
C-71451486-1469KakishchewayCrooked Lakes1883-10-061-5249-51
C-714686-88KakishchewayCrooked Lakes1884-07-291-8439-421
C-7146374-377OchapowaceCrooked Lakes1885-10-121-8545-482
C-7146769-773OchapowaceReserve No 71 Crooked Lakes18861-9946-50Date not recorded
C-71461277-1280OchapowaceCrooked Lakes1887-07-121-9950-53
C-7147227-230OchapowaceCrooked Lakes1888-07-241-10088-91
C-7147697-704OchapowaceCrooked Lake1889-07-151-104100-107
C-71471186-1194OchapowaceCrooked Lake1890-07-161-109166-174
C-7148105-113OchapowaceCrooked Lake1891-10-061-114226-243
C-7148546-554OchapowaceCrooked Lake1892-10-051-11899-107
C-7148980-984OchapowaceCrooked Lake1893-10-041-120177-186
C-71481427-1436OchapowaceCrooked Lake1894-11-021-123211-230
C-7149307-316OchapowaceCrooked Lake1895-10-161-127230-249
C-7149770-774OchapowaceCrooked Lake1896-11-061-133101-105
C-71491224-1228OchapowaceCrooked Lake1897-07-131-134103-107
C-715079-82OchapowaceReserve, Crooked Lake1898-07-135-13595-98
C-7150531-533OchapowaceCrooked Lake Agency1899-07-12&135-135218-225
C-71501022-1025OchapowaceCrooked Lake Agency1900-07-195-135214-221
C-71501574-1577OchapowaceCrooked Lake Agency1901-07-17&185-135198-205
C-7151544-547OchapowaceReserve No 711902-07-155-13691-94
C-71511098-1101OchapowaceReserve, Crooked Lake1903-07-155-136198-205
C-715294-97OchapowaceReserve, Crooked Lake1904-07-135-140180-187
C-7152676-679OchapowaceReserve No 71, Crooked Lake Agency1905-07-125-140179-185
C-7153227-230OchapowaceCrooked Lake Agency Office1907-07-105-142175-182
C-7153809-812OchapowaceCrooked Lake Agency Office1908-07-155-142198-205
C-71531439-1441OchapowaceCrooked Lake Agency Office1909-07-145-143194-199

1 The bands of Chakachas and Kahkeesheway although paid separately up to 1882, are paid together in that year, separately in 1883, and together 1884 on. Chief Chakachas resigned as chief of his band in 1882, and the band was paid under the Chief Kahkeesheway until 1884, when he died and his son Ochowpowace was elected in his place.

2 Formerly known as Kahkishsheway.

Treaty Annuity List Reels C-7145 to C-7153

In February of this year I wrote about the use of Treaty Annuity Lists in researching my Indigenous ancestors. I had linked to a blog post on where the writer identified what was on each reel hosted on but the post has since been deleted.

I have created an index of the indexes on reels C-7145 to C-7153 from 1874 to 1909 when the lists end. The information below is of the reel number, the image number, the date, and the Treaty information that can be found. I’ve also taken the step to link directly to the index’s permalink.

I’m unfamiliar with reels C-7135 to C-7139 and T-7139 but if I remember the post correctly they were related to Treaties 1 to 3. I’d like to create an index for these as well as I continue research on my relatives from those areas.

In addition to this index, I’ve created 3 others in Excel which outlines Treaty Annuity List details for four Treaty 4 communities from the Crooked Lake Agency from 1874 to 1909. They are Chacachas, Cowessess, Kahkewistahaw, and Ochapowace. I find the details about Chacachas to be particularly interesting given its illegal amalgamation with Kakisheway which was later renamed after his son, Ochapowace, after Chief Kakisheway/Kakisiwew (Loud Voice) died in 1884.

ReelImage #DateTreaty
C-71459-1018764; 6
C-714510-1218774; 6; 7
C-714512-1618784; 6; 7
C-7145422-42518794; 6; 7
C-7145665-66818802; 4; 6; 7
C-7145878-88118814; 6; 7
C-71451135-113818824; 6; 7
C-71467-1018834; 6; 7
C-714644-4718844; 6; 7
C-7146325-32918852; 4; 6; 7
C-7146717-72218862; 4; 6; 7
C-71461221-122618872; 4; 6; 7
C-7147131-13618882; 4; 6; 7
C-7147609-61218892; 4; 6; 7
C-71471080-108318902; 4; 6; 7
C-71487-1118912; 4; 6; 7
C-7148463-46618922; 4; 6; 7
C-7148905-90818932; 4; 6
C-71481332-133618942; 4; 6; 7
C-71497-1118942; 4; 6; 7
C-7149211-21518952; 4; 6; 7
C-7149691-89418962; 4; 6; 7
C-71491152-115618972; 4; 6; 7
C-71508-1118982; 4; 6; 7
C-7150459-46318992; 4; 6; 7; 8
C-7150928-93219002; 4; 6; 7; 8
C-71501491-149519014; 6; 7; 8
C-7151467-47119024; 6; 7; 8
C-71511011-101519034; 6; 7; 8
C-71527-1319042; 4; 6; 7; 8
C-7152587-59119052; 4; 6; 7; 8
C-71521160-116419062; 4; 6; 7; 8; 10
C-71536-1019062; 4; 6; 7; 8; 10
C-7153154-15719072; 4; 6; 7; 8; 10
C-7153727-73119082; 4; 6; 7; 8; 10
C-71531355-135919094; 6; 7; 8; 10

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Dec 22 – 1921

Dog Race for Dauphin

The First Annual Dog Race will be held on Monday, January 2nd, in the afternoon, for boys and girls. The prizes will be given according to the support received from the public. It is the Committee’s object to have several races this winter and the first will be run on the above date, so the competitors will have time to train their dogs by then. Any subscriptions may be handed to Rev. Hamilton, Pat Muligan, Duncan Pearson or to F.C. Turland, who is acting Secretary-Treasurer, and who will also be pleased to give full particulars upon request. Help to boost the race Supress of the event will mean fun for the kiddies this winter.

Had Hands and Feet Frozen

Jerry Ravensburg, a homesteader in the Crane River district, was found by the provincial police last week, wandering around the lake in an aimless m[?] with his hands and feet badly frozen. Ravensburg had become insane and left his home. He was given medical attention and later taken to the asylum in Brandon.

Needy People in Town

Dauphin has more families in need this winter than in any year in its history. While in some cases it may be attributed to [falis?] of parents, a great deal of the distress can be accounted for by lack of employment. The Town Council, the churches and other organizations have the matter of providing for families well in hand, and their efforts are being supplemented by the endeavor of citizens. The officers of the Salvation Army, have applications for clothing and people who have cast off garments can make good use of same by notifying Capt. Johnson, who will distribute same to the right quarters.

Fork River Festivities

The season opened with a Hallowe’en party to be held in the school. The earliest arrivals, however, found all in darkness and thought that they were Tuck in when a glance down the street showed them the affair had taken a slight Tilt and landed across the way. The organization was well planned for a progressive game of whist fit into the Timewell and introduced the strangers. The sons of Williams, Richards and Will were present and gave a steadiness to the affair. Someone suggested that it would be as well to Lock (the) Wood as the unsteadier element might get Cooper in trouble over the dishes. However Prudens prevailed and the affair passed off quietly with a Little dance. Our worthy seedsman Briggs by name has been heard saying Harlow quite frequently but the young lady herself calls it Halo. His brother’s face is seen to Blanche with fear as he Hunts for a partner for a dance.

The following week a Thanksgiving supper was given and turkey figured largely on the bill of fare. Some hunters in the vicinity who were, commissioned to replenish the larder, report the choicer varieties of game to be very scarce but grouse to be fairly abundant. However a very sumptuous repast was served. The Irish of course could not get along without their Tait(ers). Parker(house) rolls, salads, etc., were served in a lavish manner and the tables fairly groaned under the weight of the good things provided. A Little dash of Curry added brightness as well as spice and flavor to the affair. The Winnipegosis orchestra played during the meal which added greatly to its enjoyment. After the supper they put on a very enjoyable program. The world renowned baritone Prof. Shears rendered a very classic selection in the truly pompus style of such celebrities. Unfortunately he could not Reid his music very well, in fact he read it upside down, i.e., the music; but otherwise it was artistically rendered and heartily encored. Another popular item was given by Mr. Roberts. Mr. Roberts has acquired a truly oriental style both in methods of procedure and delivery for he read it backwards and in a reverse position. A noted trio also figured largely on the program. A famous elocutionist was present and gave a very fine selection, but upon being encored she was so upset by some experience with a young man from Aldershot that she was unable to respond. Her troubled Browse won the sympathy of the audience. We hope that she will soon recover from her unhappy experience and be able to favor the public again in her usual capable manner.

The next event was a farewell to our esteemed friends, the Lockwoods. They will be greatly missed in our midst as they took a very active part in the social life. The evening’s performance opened with a game of whist. This created considerable excitement as the winners were nearing the goal. There was scarcely time to take a Brethour two and no time to Parker round the corners as the winning team was just two lengths ahead and making straight for the goal. The prizes presented were of a useful character. Some of our friends from the north were present for the first time this season and have a very Ven(er)able appearance as well as added distinction to the party. Our new station agent felt very Proud as he danced with the leading belles of the town. A very dainty lunch was served and four leafed clovers were seen among the viands. Later some recitations were given. Mrs. Lockwood gave some really good advice to girls which we hope will receive serious attention.

Sime nature study students from Snell’s Grove brought some specimens for identification. Among them was the lace wing, a very dainty insect with large Lacey wings, and which feeds upon the aphids. Another was the Dobson which is the aquatic larva of the order of insects known as neuropteran. In the larva stage of development it is used largely by fishermen for bait. It is well known along the banks of the Mossy. Eels are also reported to be found along this stream. The Meadows and Lees are full of such insects as the damsel and dragon flies.

The evening’s performance closed with a little dance and as the lights were low it finished up with a dance in the White, moonlight which was streaming in through the windows. Then there was a Russel for to get the wraps. The darkness acted as a Shield to some amusing episodes which were transpiring in the corridors.

The next important event was the recital given by the pupils of Prof. Williamson. The pupils reflected great credit on their teacher by the way the songs and instrumentals were given. Among them was the Flight of the Butterflies and The Thunderstorm. A little lassie of eight played a Scotch selection on the violin and was heartily encored. Representatives were presented from the various countries. The Irish were there from the Shannon while the McLean tartan represented the Highlands. Prof. Williamson represents the Toronto College of Music and his pupils were presented with diplomas from that college during the evening performance. Misses Reid, Bailey, Robertson, Hafenbrak, Munro and Hunt were the fortunate winners and nearly all passed with honors.

After these there was an adjournment and those who did not stay in their Ward at home set out on five year’s cruise on the Meighen and were shipwrecked.


Fork River

The Orangemen will hold their annual New Year’s Ball on January 6th. This is an annual affair and always has been one of the events of the season. Come out and enjoy yourself. The proceeds are to go to a member who lost his all by fire some days ago.

The U.F.M. has elected new officers for the year and will start out with a pie social on January 13th. Do not forget the date.

E.V. Lockwood and family have left for Englefeldt, where Mr. Lockwood will take charge of the C.N. station.

J. Schuchett is moving his old warehouse to the street and all old customers will find him open for business.

The “kiddies” are looking forward to the Christmas holidays with a grin.

Rats are becoming the pest of the village. We would like to see the council put a bounty on them. It might help rid the district of what will be the source of considerable loss of not checked.

See Fred Tilt for fire and life insurance. No one should go without insurance. The cost is small and the security is great.


The catch of fish at this point, so far, is below normal. The late mild weather made it very hard to handle the catch at all.

Enearson Bros. have taken a bunch of teams up to the northern part of the make and expect to return with fish about Dec. 20.

The Booth fisheries and the Independent Fisheries have finished storing ice for next season’s operations.

Hay and wood are coming in steadily, at $2.50 to $3 per load for hay and $3.50 to $4 per cord for seasoned poplar.

The trustees are advertising for a new principal of the school. Teachers seem to be ever on the move and keep the trustees guessing all the time. Some day the profession, like other professions, will become more permanent. Of course, in this statement I do not wish to include the gentler sex, whose chief aim (and a worthy one) is to get married.

The United Sunday school Christmas tree and entertainment on the 22nd promises to be a great success. A large number of our young people are taking part in the program. The work of training the children was no small job, and to those who gave their time the thanks of the community are due.

Inspector Martin, of the provincial police, Dauphin, arrived on Tuesday, to participate in a wolf hunt. He was joined here by Constable Black. Timber wolves are reported killing tock in the country north of the town and settlers want these dangerous animals exterminated. An Indian hunter will accompany the two constables on their expedition.

Our community, in sympathy with other places in the West has experienced a poor year. But, many of us in times gone by have seen worse days, so let us cheer up and plan for better things in the coming year.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Dec 15 – 1921

Brakeman Tuck Killed

George F. Tuck, brakeman, was killed at noon Monday in the Canadian National Railway yards at Swan River. He jumped from the Prince Albert through freight train as it was pulling into the station. He slipped, fell backward under the moving cars, and was killed instantly. Tuck was 23 years old and a native of England. He was a returned soldier and had been a resident of Dauphin for little over a year.

The funeral took place from Farrell’s Undertaking Parlors on Wednesday afternoon to Riverside cemetery. The service was conducted by the Rev. Philip Duncan.

Fined for Assault

Fred Beyko appeared before P.M. Hawkins on Monday, December 12th, charged with assaulting Harry Derkacz. Beyko was found guilty and fined $20 and costs, amount in all to $46.75. Both parties belong to the Valley River district.

Fork River

The mighty hunters have returned from their annual trek. Some bring spoils others a long face.

The annual meeting of the U.F.M. will be held in the school house on Friday evening, December 16. This is the business meeting of the year and everyone is requested to turn out. A directors meeting will be held right after the annual meeting and the evening will finish with a dance and supper. Everyone turn out and have a good time.

The teachers are working hard on the Christmas entertainment to be held on the 22nd. The “kiddies” are rounding into shape and there is a promise of a fine evening ahead. Do not forget the date.

Municipal nomination day passed over very quickly. Reeve Robertson was returned by acclamation. In Ward 2 we have Sam Hrushovey and Joe Fedorovitch. Ward 6 Metro Fediuk, Nicola Panagopka and Arthur Shannon, while Ward 4 has Mr. Hart and Frank Thorsteinson.

T.B. Venables has completed part of his new home and has moved in for the winter. Mr. Venables will complete building operation in the spring.

James Tate lost his home by fire some days ago. The family was away at the time and as far as can be learned there was little if any fire in the stove at the time.

Stanley King was a visitor during the hunting season. Stanley is an old-timer and is always a welcome visitor.

E.V. Lockwood and family have returned from a trip to Chicago, where they were visiting Mrs. Lockwood’s folks.

Cordwood is coming into town and the price is a bit lower than for some time.

In fixing up for the winter do not forget to see Tilt for insurance. No matter what it is he has insurance to cover it.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Dec 8 – 1921

Fine $200

Stanley Sawicki, of Sifton, appeared before magistrate Hawkins at the end of the week charged with having liquor in his possession, when arrested by chief of police Everett. He was found guilty and fined $200 and costs. The liquor was home brew and possessed a good kick Sawicki was but recently released from jail.

Fork River

The election is over, but we doubt if all are satisfied with the result. It was ever thus.

The annual meeting of the Fork River Agricultural Society will be held in the Secretary’s office, on Saturday, December 17th, at 2 p.m.

On Tuesday evening the pupils of Prof. Williamson gave a musical recital in the Orange Hall. There was a large attendance and the appreciation shown by the audience throughout the evening testified to the excellent merit of the performers. Amongst those who made their appearance for the first time were Hetty Richardson, piano solo; Mary Jane Little, piano solo; Bernice McLean, piano solo and Maisie Dobson, a little maid of 8 years whose well rendered violin solo earned for her two recalls. The style and technique displayed in the rending of the piano solos “La Papillion” by Kate Robertson, “Dance Gaciense” by Irene Bailey, “Artutus” by Blanche Hunt and “Silver Nymph” by Myrtle Munro, also the “Sonatma” by Edna Hafenbrak was above the average and gave evidence of the high standard of training those young students receive in the Fork River studio. The vocal solos by [?] Bailey and Edna Hafenbrak were well received, as were the piano duets by the misses Shannon, Richardson and Munro and pearl and Verna Reid. Congratulations and thanks were tendered Prof. Williamson for the great interest he takes in the progress of his pupils.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Dec 1 – 1921

Mossey River Council

The council met at Fork River, Nov. 15. All the members were present. Minutes of the last meeting read and adopted.

Communications were read from Lakeview Municipality, including copies of several resolutions. Municipal Commission, re date for Mossey River and Winnipegosis to meet in the question of the Mossey River Bridge; Dauphin Land Office, re cancellation of homestead entries; the Hudson Bay Co., as to water trouble on 12-29-20; H. Arrowsmith, re tax account; the controller of town planning, re addition to Fork River; two applications for cancellation of taxes under “The Soldiers’ Taxation Relief Act,” and the Municipal commissioner, re hail insurance.

Hunt-McLean — That the taxes on the T.A. Burrows lumber yard be cancelled to a basis of assessment of $5,000.

Marcroft-Hunt — That taxes to the amount of $20.34 standing against the S. of 2-31-18 be cancelled.

Hunt-Marcroft — That taxes against the following lands be cancelled to the amount over and above an assessment of $800. The nw, sw, and ne of 9-29-18; the nw 23-30-18; and the ne 14-31-19, and also the nw 11-29-19, to an assessment basis of $900.

Hunt-Toye — That the several resolutions submitted by the municipality of Lakeview be endorsed and that the delegates to the Municipal Convention are instructed to support them vigorously.

Marcroft-Thorsteinson — That the account of Coun. Panagobka for letting and inspecting work be passed.

Panagobka-McLean — That the following amounts of taxes be cancelled: D.A. Briggs $35.28; T.N. Briggs, jr, $75.

McLean-Toye — That the polling place for Tp. 30, Rge. 19, be Bicton Health School and for Tp. 29, Rge. 19, Wieden School.

Toye-Panagobka — That the reeve and Coun. Marcroft be a Committee to investigate the water trouble on sec. 12-29-20.

McLean-Panagobka — That the accounts as recommended by the Finance Committee be passed.

McLean-Panagobka — That the Council adjourn to meet again at the call of the reeve.


Several loads of fish have arrived from Duck Bay. As the season advances fish deliveries will be a daily occurrence.

Candidate W.J. Ward was in town Tuesday. He is billed to address several meetings in the district this week.

Rev. E Roberts returned from Dauphin on Tuesday. He had an interview with the dentist while at the big down.

The ladies in town are very busy preparing for the United Church bazaar, to be held in Friday, December 9th, in the Rex Hall, commencing at 3 p.m. A good assortment of dainty useful presents will be on sale, most suitable for Christmas presents; and tea will be served from 5 to 7 o’clock. At 8 p.m. there will be an entertainment in the hall. Admission: Adults 35 cents; children 15 cents.

Although December brings us to the half year in church work, as yet, owing to the distressing financial situation we have been able to raise only 26 per cent of the amount necessary to carry through our year’s work. It is therefore sincerely hoped that this effort to add to church funds will receive the utmost possible support of…[lost page atm]

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Nov 24 – 1921

Fire at Fork River

Early on Friday morning last fire destroyed the store and stock of James Schuchett at Fork River. The family lived over the story and were awakened at 3 o’clock by smoke and flames. The fire had made such headway that the inmates had only time to make their escape. Very little was saved from the building. Mr. Schuchett was in Winnipeg at the time of the fire. He carried $6,000 insurance.

I.O.D.E. War Memorial

The Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire war memorial, instituted about a year and a half ago, is rapidly completing its organization, the most important object of which is to benefit the sons and daughters of decreased or disable soldiers, sailors or airmen, in connection with the clause re bursaries in Canadian universities, already ten boys and eight girls are studying in the universities and in nearly every case the universities are remitting a large portion of the tuition fees. The successful candidates for the Canadian bursaries this year, value $250 per year for four years, are as follows: Province of Manitoba James Kellett, of Winnipeg; Saskatchewan, E.W. White, Arcola; British Columbia, Kathleen Dodds, Vernon; Ontario, Gordon R. Maybee, Napanee; Quebec, E.W. Staecie, Montreal; Nova Scotia, Florence L. Tupper, Kentville. Owing to the fact the Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick did not send in any applications, the bursaries allotted to these provinces were given to Manitoba and Saskatchewan. J. Sumner, of Winnipeg, was given one of these bursaries and Wm. Blackburn, of Weyburn, the other. The clause re overseas scholarships, value $1,400 for one year—is not as yet fully completed. Four scholars were sent to British universities this year and five will be sent next year. When this clause of the memorial is complete the overseas scholarship will be given in each province each year.

Sunday Night Fire

What might have been a serious fire with disastrous consequences broke out on Sunday night at midnight. Mr. Spence, of the Royal Bank, was passing by Bowman and McFadden’s office and noticing flames, quickly raised the alarm. In a very few moments our efficient fire brigade was on the spot. The fire had started in one corner of the office between two brick walls and thus saved more series results. Mr. and Mrs. Ramsden and babe were awakened and quickly made their escape. Beyond the damage of smoke and water no serious harm was done.

Bicton Heath

Winnipegosis, Nov. 22

We are looking forward to the coming municipal election. Rumor has it that four men are going to lock horns for Ward two.

Settlers are still coming in around here; this is going to be a good farming district yet.

We are pleased to learn that Mr. Wenger and family are coming back in our midst.

The attendance at our school is now on the upward trend since the roads from up.

James Toye informs us, that the young folks are going to hold a boating party next spring. Gondolas stone boats and punts will be the order of the day. The route to be traversed is from Jas. Laidlaw’s corner to Arthur Campbell’s, and thence across country to Tom Toye’s.

Someone said Tom Toye’s wrist was swollen. “Too much hand shaking, Tom”!

An old musical ditty says: “Mary had a little lamb, etc.” Last Sunday Mr. Ogmundson met a wolf with a little lamb and he got it, and took it back it its owner.

We would like to see the Herald in a few more homes around here.

Mr. Ogmundson has about completed his new barn. He is waiting for plaster.

Say, Joe, have you spotted out the Christmas tree yet? The young and old, are looking forward for another good time.

Rev. E Roberts will commence his series of lantern lectures on the evening of November 30th at 8 p.m. everybody turn out as it will be worth seeing.

Arthur Campbell, of Sec. 14, is going to contest the reeveship this year. He has already promised Bob Toye 4 drain pipes, and a deep ditch. “Go to it Arthur.”

Fork River

The week-end excitement was the Schuchett fire Friday morning. The residents did some hustling to save the adjoining building of Fred Tilt and the pool room, run by Geo. Lloyd. Schuchett’s loss has been considerable, but he has $6,000 in insurance. The store was the best building in town and is a loss to the community.

There is a report that both Mr. Tilt and Mr. Ben Canner lost considerable sums of money during the excitement of the fire. Ben says in future he will not leave his money in his overalls.

Coun. Ab. Hunt is a juryman at the Dauphin assizes this week.

The people hereabouts are looking forward to hear some of the political spell binders hold forth before election day. So for we have had no meetings. Guess the candidates think we know how to vote anyway.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Nov 17 – 1921

$300 from Poppy Day Sale

In commemoration of the many Canadian Soldiers who are buried on the battlefields of France and Flanders, and to mark the signing of the armistice, thousands of Red Poppies, replicas of the scarlet flowers which grow in such profusion in the devastated areas, were placed on sale last Friday, all through Manitoba.

In Dauphin the sale ladies were on the street at an early hour, and every pedestrian was politely asked the question, “Will you buy a poppy?” Scarcely a person refused and nearly every man, woman and child, wore a red flower.

Headquarters for the poppy Day campaign were established in the G.W.V.A. Hall. Proceeds of the sale amounted to about $300, half of which goes to the G.W.V.A. Building Fund, and half to the I.O.D.E. War Memorial.

La Verandrye Chapter thanks the Great War Veterans Association for the use of the rooms, the citizens in town and country for their generous response toward the campaign, and lastly the different committees of ladies, who worked so untiringly in their efforts that the sale might be a success.

Dauphin’s Population 3862

The census returns for Manitoba are now to hand. The population for he town is 3862. With the sub-divisions of Westmoore and River Heights it is 4,200. The sub-divisions are really part of the town although in the rural municipality of Dauphin. The increase since the census of 1911 is 37.19 per cent.

The population of the Electoral Division of Dauphin is 35,219. The increase since 1911 is 50.78 per cent.

The population of the province is 613,008, an increase since 1911 of 32.92 per cent.

Grandview town has a population of 846, an increase of 32.81.


Mr. Harry W. Grenon returned on Tuesday from a trip to Chicago. He states that the fish market outlook is not very bright. Prices are likely to continue low.

The open winter fishing season started on the 15th. The number of licenses issued is about 150, which is considerably less than last season. No fish, of course, will be brought down from the north until the ice is strong enough to carry the teams.

The wholesale companies operating this season are: The Booth Fisheries, The Armstrong Independent Fisheries and H.W. Grenon.

The prevailing prices for fish are 6 cents a pound for whites and 5c. for yellows.

The meeting in the interest of Mr. Cruise last week was well attended. The speakers were Messrs. Cruise and Bowman.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Nov 10 – 1921

1921 Nov 10 – I.O.D.E.

To-morrow, Armistice Day, as a tribute to Canada’s dead heroes, members of La Verandrye Chapter will flood the streets with their hand-made poppies. Corps of workers have been enlisted for the task, and every citizen will be asked to buy a poppy in memory of a soldier “lying in Flanders fields.”

The Red Poppy was chosen by Canadian women as the fitting bower with which to honor Canada’s army on Armistice Day. It is hoped that the citizens will co-operate with us in making Canadian Poppy Day a huge success. Proceeds of the sale are solely for patriate purposes.

1921 Nov 10 – L.A. to G.W.V.A. Notes

The regular meeting will be held in the new hall on Tuesday, Nov. 15th. A full attendance is request.

The bazaar was a success. This is a feather in the ladies’ hats.

The dance will be held on Saturday as a usual in the Veterans’ new hall. Admission 50c.

1921 Nov 10 – Fork River

Your correspondent missed last week through having the hook worm or some other equally no-good excuse.

The Fork River Women’s institute met on the 5th November to receive the report of the retiring president, Mrs. E. Lockwood. The women are to be commended for the deep interest they are taking in fitting up the school kitchen.

The regular social evening of the Fork River U.F.M. will be held on Friday evening, Nov. 11. Every one turn out and have a good time. Cards and dancing will be the order of the evening.

E.V. Lockwood is disposing of his property north of the town.

Our old resident, “Bill” Tuck, says he is going west and grow up with the country. Hop-to-it, Bill, you have our best wishes.

Mike and Carl Lundy have recently purchased the livery stable of Harry Little. They intend to carry on a general dray and livery business.

The school trustees have just received their winter supply of coal. The kiddies are assured of a comfy building for winter.

The Mossey River Rural Credits Society held a meeting on the first to talk matters over with the members. Each and every member is requested to call and see the secretary on or before the next meeting, which will be held on December 3, 1921.

Mr. and Mrs. J. Peterson have left for Winnipeg, where they expect to spend the winter. Their house is for rent or sale. For terms apply to F.J. Tilt.

Mr. and Mrs. Shuchett have a friend who has just arrived from Russia, having been ten months making the trip. What a difference this lady must find between Russia and her present home.

Tax notices are out and the usual cry is heard up and down the land. Our school rate is high but we believe it could be reduced by bringing the two schools together.

Big game permits will shortly b on sale at the office of Fred J. Tilt.

N. Panagobka is putting on a sale on the 19th inst. here is a chance for those who have some spare cash.

A. Cameron, of Cypress River, was a visitor this week. Sandy is hale and hearty and is always a welcome visitor in our midst.

Our crops are not what we expected this fall but we are in far better shape than some districts in southern Manitoba. Fork River has never known an absolute crop failure and we don’t expect to. Readjustment must come after a war such as we have gone through and we feel that ere long we will be back on a pre-war basis. Good bless (? old kaiser bill.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – Nov 3 – 1921

1921 Nov 3 – Fire at Winnipegosis

Fire early Wednesday morning destroyed the stores of Isaac Bradbery and Nate Kessler. The loss will be considerable. Some insurance was carried by the firms.

1921 Nov 3 – G.W.V.A. Notes

The next regular meeting will b held on November 9th –will the members keep this date in mind and attend the meeting.

Anyone who has a supply of magazines that they are done with and have no further use for will oblige by leaving them in the reading room of the home. The reading matter will be much appreciated. The magazines will also be sent to the homesteads where reading matter is always acceptable.

Only a year now left in which to take up the soldiers’ insurance. Have you taken up any of this insurance? Over five thousand returned men have taken up the insurance; there are many more who are entitled to take advantage of it and become insured. It is a good thing to take up while it is going.

Don’t forget to support the “Poppy Ladies” on Armistice Day. Every veteran should have a poppy on that day.

Don’t fail to attend the bazaar of the Ladies’ Auxiliary to the G.W.V.A. on Thursday, November 3rd, as well as the ball at night.

Will every member see to it that he is in good stand if with the local branch. We are trying to get the new home fitted up and need all the help that we can get it.

1921 Nov 3 – H.E. Hunt Loses His Leg

H.E. Hunt, who now resides at Stettler, Alta., met with a bad gun accident on Tuesday, 1st inst. he received the charge of the gun in his leg below the knee and later had to have the leg amputated. Mrs. Hunt left for Stettler this (Thursday) morning.

1921 Nov 3 – Jury Verdict Accidental Death

The coroner’s jury empanelled at Winnipegosis on the 27th ult., to enquire into the death of Duncan Crerar, who was thrown from a wagon when his horses ran away, brought in a verdict that his death resulted from the accident.

1921 Nov 3 – October Police Records

The police records for October show that these were 13 convictions for October as follows: Two were fined for speeding, four drunks, one for breach of license by-law, two for disorderly conduct, two for running autos with cut outs on, two for breach of traffic by-law. The town’s share of the fines amounted to $110.

1921 Nov 3 – Poppies! “Lest we Forget.”

With the world-wide call to prayer for the disarmament of the Nations, there comes through “The Imperial Order Daughters of Empire” a national call to service. The fingers that were used so long to plying the busy knitting needles are not content to remain idle. There is work yet to be done—great and noble work, and every loyal Canadian must feel it a privilege to share the responsibility which the Daughters of Empire have assumed. The Poppies bloom in Flanders Field over the graves of many an unknown hero, who, when he gave his life for his country, have his all; and somewhere under the British flag his children may be struggling through life without the advantages that would make of them men and women worthy to fill the gaps left by the war. Many an inventive genius, many a brilliant mind may be lost to the wold because of the lack of resources to finance an advanced education.

And herein lies the work of The Daughters of Empire for many future years—to maintain the fund established, by them for enabling the worthy sons and daughters of fallen British soldiers, sailors and aviators, to obtain the best educational advantages the country can afford, thus making of them an asset of which the nation may be proud.

Has any monument so grad yet been erected to the memory of our Canadian heroes?

To keep alive the spirit of patriotism, and inspire the sentiment in the minds of the young, the women of our National Chapter, and all its auxiliaries, have, during the past weeks been engaged in marking “Poppies”, which they expect will be purchased and worn on “Armistice Day” by every loyal British subject. Though it is “Only a scrap of paper” it will be the duty of every parent and teacher in the land to wear one and tell the children the “Old Old Story” of that for which the Poppy stands the story of—

“The day when our hearts were wrung

And our Country’s Banner a half-mast hung

For the loss of our lads in brown

‘Twas a Nation’s grief, but an Empire’s gain

For they fell, that Empire to maintain

And that peace and liberty still might reign

In every man’s home town.

How best can we honor our noble dead—

Can storied marble a halo shed

To glorify Khaki Brown?

No! Let us open the doors of learning wide

To the sons and daughters of those who died

At Ypres and Vimy and Somme’s red tide,

For the sake of their own home town.

And in future years when the mists roll by,

And a world shall ask the reason why

These sleep in Khaki Brown,

Old Time will flutter his hoary wing,

And say in a voice with a gladsome ring,

“They died that a nobler race might spring

From the boys of our own home town.”

1921 Nov 3 – Thieves Enter Tailor’s Shop

Solomon’s tailor shop was entered Sunday night and two pair of pants and a grey jacket taken. Entrance was gained through a window in the rear of the shop. The window was being repaired and had been left unsecured.

1921 Nov 3 – Wife Beater Given Two Months

Edward Radford, a homesteader of the Shergrove district, appeared before magistrate Rheaume at Ste. Rose du Lac, on Saturday, October 29th, charged with beating his wife. He was found guilty and sentenced to two months in the Dauphin jail at hard labor.

1921 Nov 3 – Winnipegosis

The hatchery boat is now bringing in the roughfish which were caught while taking spawn.

Messrs. Toye, McDonald, Joe Bickel, Shears, Ketcheson, Sieffert, Denby, Brown, and Giggins attended the Union government convention at Dauphin, when Robert Cruise was again nominated as a government supporter.

A community club is being formed at this point, under the direction of Mr. Shears. Singing will be taken up as one of the first features of the winter’s programme.

Coroner’s juries do some funny things. In his evidence at the inquest of Duncan Crerar, Dr. Bottomley gave it as his opinion that deceased came to his death as a result of apoplexy. Yet in the face of this evidence the jury brought in a verdict that death was due to his being thrown out of a wagon, due to deceased’s horses running away.

Mrs. Theo. Johnson returned to town on Tuesday, from Dauphin. She shortly leaves for Fort William, where she will spend the winter.

The politicians are beginning to get busy. Handshaking has started, but the campaign cigar has not yet made its appearance.

1916 Staff and Student Attendees of the Marieval Indian Residential School

The following transcription is from the 1916 Canadian Census of Prairie Provinces which captured the names of staff and students at the Marieval school.

You can find copies of the census on the government of Canada’s website. The pages that captured this information are from the Indian Reserves electoral district, sub-district description is Crooked Lake Agency, Reserve no. 73 – Cowessess – Qu’Appelle, pages 11 and 12.

Search the 1916 Canadian Census here.

For ease of access, I have linked these pages here (page 11) and here (page 12).

1916 Census Marieval Residential School Staff

Name PositionSexAgeTribal OriginMother Tongue
ClaraBoisertMother SuperiorFemale43FrenchFrench
MariaLe BlancAssistantFemale31FrenchFrench

1916 Census Marieval Residential School Students

Name SexAgeTribal OriginMother Tongue
St. PierreDelormeMale13CreeCree
SeraphineLaVallee (Lavallee)Female13CreeCree
TheresaLaVallee (Lavallee)Female16CreeCree
LouisePeltier (Pelletier)Female13CreeCree
MariePeltier (Pelletier)Female18CreeCree
NapoleonPeltier (Pelletier)Male10CreeCree
St. PierreWapamooseMale10CreeCree

1926 Staff and Student Attendees of the Marieval Indian Residential School

The Marieval Indian Residential School, also known as the Cowessess school, was located in the Qu’Appelle valley, south of Crooked Lake. It opened on December 19, 1898 and closed on June 30, 1997. During its operation, it was managed by the Oblate Fathers of Mary Immaculate, then later the Oblate Indian and Eskimo Commission and finally the Cowessess Board of Education.

You can learn more about the Marieval Indian Residential School, and other recognized schools under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA), by visiting the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation’s digital archive. I highly recommend reading the School Narrative which outlines important information and major events at the school.

Read more about Marieval here.

The following transcription is from the 1926 Canadian Census of Prairie Provinces which captured the names of staff and students at the Marieval school. You can find copies of the census on the government of Canada’s website. The pages that captured this information are from the Qu’Appelle electoral district, district number 30, sub-district 61, pages 1 and 2.

Search the 1926 Canadian Census here.

For ease of access, I have made these pages available here (page 1) and here (page 2).

A note about the transcription, I’ve transcribed the information as written in the census record. The term “Indian” is outdated and may be considered offensive. The term should only be used when in reference to status persons under the Indian Act.

You can read more about terminologies such as Indigenous, Aboriginal, Indian, Métis, Inuit, etc. here.

1926 Census Marieval Residential School Staff

Name PositionSexAgeTribal OriginMother Tongue
AlexinaKerouantonEmployee’s wifeFemale21FrenchFrench
LouisKerouantonEmployee’s sonMale3FrenchFrench
Joseph PaulKerouantonEmployee’s sonMale2/12FrenchFrench

1926 Census Marieval Residential School Students

Name SexAgeTribal OriginMother Tongue
Agnes BellaAcooseFemale14Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
Joseph GabrielAcooseMale15Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
Joseph RielAcooseMale13Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
Mary JimamiaAcooseFemale14Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
May LucyAcooseFemale11Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
RosalieAcooseFemale11Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
EdwardAgecoutayMale9Cree IndianCree
EmmaAgecoutayFemale7Cree IndianCree
EvaAgecoutayFemale14Cree IndianCree
IsidoreAgecoutayMale7Cree IndianCree
AgnesAisaicanFemale14Cree IndianCree
AlbertAisaicanMale12Cree IndianCree
AndrewAisaicanMale10Cree IndianCree
EmanuelAisaicanMale16Cree IndianCree
IsadoreAisaicanMale17Cree IndianCree
JeremieAisaicanMale14Cree IndianCree
Joseph VictorAisaicanMale9Cree IndianCree
LeonAisaicanMale8Cree IndianCree
Marie LouiseAisaicanFemale8Cree IndianCree
OliviaAisaicanFemale10Cree IndianCree
DelvinaBellehumeurFemale10French Half-Breed1French
EstherBellehumeurFemale13French Half-BreedFrench
Mary CatherineBellehumeurFemale15French Half-BreedFrench
AgnesBordenFemale6Cree Indian2Saulteaux
JosephineBordenFemale10Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
AmableDelormeMale7Cree IndianCree
AmbroseDelormeMale8Cree IndianCree
Ambrose CharlesDelormeMale12Cree IndianCree
ClaraDelormeFemale10Cree IndianCree
ClementDelormeMale10Cree IndianCree
FlorenceDelormeFemale13Cree IndianCree
FrancisDelormeMale8Cree IndianCree
FrancoiseDelormeFemale17Cree IndianCree
IsabellaDelormeFemale12Cree IndianCree
JamesDelormeMale14Cree IndianCree
RosalieDelormeFemale8Cree IndianCree
PhillippeHenryMale16French Half-BreedCree
GilbertLafontaineMale16French Half-BreedFrench
MarieLafontaineFemale12French Half-BreedFrench
NormanLafontaineMale10French Half-BreedFrench
PeterLafontaineMale8French Half-BreedFrench
AgnesLavalleeFemale17Cree IndianCree
CelinaLavalleeFemale15Cree IndianCree
FlorestineLavalleeFemale15French Half-BreedFrench
VirginieLavalleeFemale13Cree IndianCree
EmilieLeratFemale11Cree IndianCree
FlorenceLeratFemale10Cree IndianCree
GeorgeLeratMale16Cree IndianCree
GeorgeLeratMale11Cree IndianCree
HenriettaLeratFemale16Cree IndianCree
AliceLouisonFemale6Cree IndianCree
MosesNorthwindMale8Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
ElizaNowekeseswapeFemale15Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
DovatPelletierMale14Cree IndianCree
EdwardPelletierMale10Cree IndianCree
ElizabethPelletierFemale14Cree IndianCree
RobertPelletierMale11Cree IndianCree
SampsonPelletierMale15Cree IndianCree
TheresaPelletierFemale9Cree IndianCree
John BaptisteRedwoodMale13Cree IndianCree
JosephRedwoodMale15Cree IndianCree
GeorginaSmokerFemale9Cree IndianCree
AdelineSparvierFemale10Cree IndianCree
Lily JaneStillFemale10Cree IndianCree
Rose AliceTrottierFemale9Cree IndianCree
AliceTwo VoiceFemale16Cree IndianCree
Marie AnneTwo VoiceFemale15IndianCree
Joseph PaulWapamooseMale16Cree IndianCree
JosephWilliamsMale14Saulteaux IndianSaulteaux
Joseph CleophasYoungMale10Cree IndianCree

1 Outdated and insensitive term for Métis of French and Indigenous ancestry.

2 I believe this is an error, and Agnes should be listed as from the Saulteaux Tribe.

3 For some students the enumerator did not list their tribe of origin, however, this information can likely be assumed based on information found in this table.


I made a large update to the Mossey River Honour Roll page.

I have added names to all of the communities listed under WWII: Ethelbert, Fishing River, Fork River, Sifton, and Winnipegosis. I have also added a number of dates of death which were previously missing in the WWI and WWII lists based on obituaries I have found in the Winnipeg Free Press and Dauphin Herald.

I have created a separate page for the list of teachers at the Mowat School 1232. Previously this was under the general page for the school. I have also added brith and death dates for those I could identify in the Winnipeg Free Press and Dauphin Herald.

Finally, I added a page for teachers of the North Lake School. Currently, this list is under the Mowat drop down although it will be moved when I create a North Lake School page.

My plan is to add to the transcribed lists of students.

Indigenous Genealogy Work – Joseph Pelletier (1876-1943)

Edited January 23, 2022, with updated information provided to me by a Lerat cousin.

Conducting research on my Indigenous ancestors has always posed a challenge for me. Limits to records—their availability, ease of access, and even their existence has made research much slower.

I’ve had very little success with Saskatchewan’s vital statistics records and hit or miss success with census records which have aided me the most in my research. Knowing very little about my Indigenous ancestors at the start of my genealogy journey meant I had to rely on what I could find but that means there are inaccuracies and mysteries abound.

This past year I decided to try searching Treaty annuity records to see if I can find more information on this part of my family. What a treasure trove! Although limited in their capacity, I discovered so much which hadn’t known before 2019.

Only a portion of Treaty annuity records have been digitized, from 1974 to 1909, and there is still leg-work required to go through the microfilm to locate the right reserve. As of January 23rd, 2022, I have created indexes to make less work for researchers.

It was by browsing through these records that I discovered Marie Adele Lerat (1888-1918) was not my grandfather’s biological mother, but his step-mother.

I’ve had a suspicion that this was the case but had no proof to confirm. It does account for the name changes in census records as well as for the gap between my grandfather Napoleon Pelletier (1905-1985) and his brother Robert Louis Pelletier (1915-2001).

The list of Treaty annuity list reels is here:

Here’s a blog post which identifies what Treaties and years are covered on each digitized reel: (dead link)

In the 1895, band member #46 of Cowessess, Hyacinth Pelletier (1849-1906) had a son who married the daughter of band member #13. At this time, Hyacinth and his wife drew an annuity payment. It also states that one grandson died sometime after the previous year’s payment.

1895. Treaty Annuity List.

The newly married couple would draw from #157. Here we see Joseph Pelletier (1876-1943) and an ‘unnamed’ wife. It’s unfortunate that many of the records at this time only record the name of the person collecting annuity on behalf of their family. The unnamed wife was Marie Caroline Aisaican (1878-1909).

1895. Treaty Annuity List.

Caroline’s (1878-1909) father was Aisaican (English=Clarified Maple Sugar) (1830-???) and her mother was Julie Sparvier (1848-???). In the 1905 census records I found the Aisaican family listed as Sparvier as well. Sparvier is also the surname used for Caroline in some of the Baptisms records.

In 1895, Aisaican (1830-???) had a wife, a son, and two daughters living on reserve with him. One of his sons, William Aisaican (1876-???), married the daughter of #126 and he also had one son who was living at Turtle Mountain. There were also a number of Pelletiers who traveled back and forth to Turtle Mountain.

1895. Treaty Annuity List.

In the 1901 census, Joseph (1876-1943) and Caroline (1878-1909) can be found living with two daughters: Marie Sarah (1897-???) and Marie Josephine (1899-1984). The family had already suffered the loss of two children, an unnamed boy who was born and died in 1896 and Mary Jane who was born and died in 1901.

It’s interesting to note that Caroline (1878-1909) is listed as Saulteaux while Joseph (1876-1843) is listed as French. In other records he’s listed as a ‘French-Breed’ and ‘Cree’. Further research informed me he is a descendent of a Red River Métis family, but that is a post for another day.

1901 Census.

The family is found again in the 1906 records. This is the first record my grandfather is recorded in. It also lists his sisters Marie Sarah (1897-???), Marie Josephine (1899-1984), and Marie Louise (1903-1980). Too bad there is not much else recorded in this census.

1906 Census.

Caroline’s death is recorded in the 1909 Treaty annuity list and in further research I found she died on January 25th, 1909. In this record, we see Joseph has one son and three daughters living on reserve with him. Additionally, there is a mark at the opposite end of the document which shows one woman died between the last annuity payment and this one.

1909 Treaty Annuity List.

Interestingly enough, Joseph (1876-1943) married Philomène Daniel (1888-1911) on July 20th, 1909, less than six months after Caroline’s death. There were four children who needed looking after, I imagine this played a part in the hasty marriage.

I learned the pair had a son on August 23rd, 1910, named J. Albert who died before his first birthday, on January 10th, 1911. Sadly, Philomène died only a few months later on June 28th, 1911. She lived long enough to be recorded in the 1911 census but I don’t have much information Philomène and must conduct more research.

The family can be found in the 1911 census records. All of Joseph’s children from his previous marriage can be found: Marie Sarah, Marie Josephine, Marie Louise, and Napoleon. Additionally, although the document states Hyacinth (1949-1906) is living with them, this is incorrect. Hyacinth died in 1906, this is recorded in the 1906 Treaty annuity payment list. Thus it is Julienne LaVallee (1853-???), his mother!

1911 Census.

On April 22nd, 1912, after Philomène’s death, Joseph (1876-1911) married Marie Adele Lerat (1888-1918). I’ve identified four children by Adele: John (1913-1913), Robert Louis (1915-2001), Theresa Elizabeth (1916-2005), and J. Silvestre (1918-1918).

Adele (1888-1918) and family can be found in the 1916 census where only Robert (1915-2001) is listed with his mother and father. The other children are either at residential school or have married.

1916 Census.

In 1918, Joseph lost both his son and his third wife on November 7th and November 10th, 1918, respectively. There are quite a number of individuals within my family living on Cowessess and Ochapowace who died during the height of the influenza pandemic. In fact, there are Indian Affairs reports which talk about the high number of deaths in the Crooked Lake Agency.

In the 1921 census, Joseph Pelletier (1876-1943) is listed with his children Marie Josephine (1899-1984), Marie Louise (1903-1980), Napoleon (1905-1985), Robert (1915-2001), and a new child born after the death of Adele (1888-1918). Her name was Marie Anne (1920-1999) and it appears she was the daughter of Marie Josephine (1899-1894) and James Atcikate (???-???). I must do further research on Marie’s father James as I have only found him in one document provided to me recently.

1921 Census.

In the 1926 census, Joseph (1876-1942) and his new wife, Ernestina Chaboyer (1880-???) whom he married on December 16th, 1925, are living together. Also living with them is Napoleon (1905-1985) and Joseph’s mother, Julienne LaVallee (1853-???). The other children Robert (1915-2001) and Theresa (1916-2005) can be found at the Cowessess residential school. There is no mention of Marie Anne (1920-1999) who must also be at the residential school but as of January 2022 I have not found yet.

1926 Census.

In a recent document that was provided to me, it appears Joseph (1876-1943) and Ernestina (1880-???) adopted a girl named Eva Patricia Ward (1930-???) who married Andrew Sparvier (???-???). This is new information as of January 2022 and which requires further research.

Joseph (1876-1943) passed away on September 23rd, 1943, in Broadview, Saskatchewan, and that is where my research ends for now.

In any case, this is just some of the information I have been able to unearth in the last year alone thanks to the Treaty annuity list as well as most recently with communications with other family members.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – April 29, 1920


We regret to learn that Comrade Roy Armstrong has resigned the secretaryship of the association. His work with the soldier settlement board as supervisor takes him away from town so much he could not attend to the duties.
Comrade Bates was in the city last attending a meeting of the executive of the provincial command when a lot of routine work was put through.
A number of returned boys are looking for homestead and soldier grant lands these days and the country south of Dauphin Lake will be well taken up this spring and a large amount of breaking will be done if we only get the right weather from now on. The rooms are proving of great service to these men.
We are sorry to learn that a great number of the soldier settlers lost a large amount of stock on account of the hard winter and the shortage of feed.
At a meeting of the executive Comrade E.C. Batty was asked to act as secretary-treasurer for the local branch of the association to fill in the term of Comrade R. Armstrong, who has resigned. Comrade Batty has agreed to fill the breach.
The Ladies’ Auxiliary held a very successful dance on Friday last. The ladies are doing good work and same is appreciated by the association.
Returned men should note that school lands are now open for soldier settlement, and any returned man may apply for an examination and estimation on any particular parcel.
Capt. Scrase has gone to Banff to take treatment and it is hoped by all the comrades that he will greatly benefit and will return to Dauphin fully restored to good heath.
Comrades Lys and Armstrong are waiting on the roads to dry up till they try out their Henry Fords. Watch for smoke when Hugh gets at the wheel.

Mossey River Council

The council met at Fork River on the 12th inst., all members being present. He minutes of the last meeting were read and adopted.
Communications were read from the Bank of Nova Scotia, re line of credit; The C.N. Town Properties, re roadway; the Dept. of Education; the H.B. Co.’s, re road divergence, 3-3-16, and the Provincial Board of Health, re district nurse.
Yakavanka-Panageika — That the clerk write the municipalities of Ethelbert and Winnipegosis and ask if they will cooperate with this municipality in the matter of a district nurse.
Marcroft-Thorsteinson — That the discount and penalty, amounting to $9.14 against the s.w. 13-41-19, be cancelled.
Hunt-Yakavanka — That the account of Peter Drainian for delivering [pilng] at Fork River, $11.40, be paid.
Marcroft-Hunt — That the action of the committee on seed grain in securing wheat, barley and flax be endorsed, and that the two samples of oats now sown are satisfactory.
Hunt-Marcroft — That the gravel which will be required for the foundation of the soldiers’ monument be procured at once and that the matter be placed in the hands of the reeve.
Marcroft-Hunt — That the secretary write the returned soldiers’ committee thanking the organization for its kind appreciation of the council’s action regarding the mater of a monument in memory of the fallen soldiers.
Hunt-Marcoft — That the services of an engineer be procured to lay out certain roads throughput the municipality and giving an estimate of the cost. This with a view to borrowing money by the issue of debentures for the building of such roads.
Marcroft-Yakavanka — That the clerk ask for tenders for the peeling of the timber now in the municipal yard. Tenders to be received up to April 30th, and that the reeve and clerk be a committee to deal with the matter.
Hunt-Marcroft – That Robert Allen be employed to run the road engine for the season of 1920, and that his remuneration be $1 an hour.
Marcroft-Hunt — That the clerk ask for applications for man to run grader for the season of 1920.
Yakavanka-Namaka — That the declaration of the reeve $23.60, and Coun. Marcroft, $12.70, for letting and inspecting work be passed.
Hunt-Yakavanka — That Coun. Marcroft be authorized to call for tenders for the building of a bridge, 20 feet, on road allowance east of 34-31-19.
Panageika-Yakavanka — That a grant of $25 be made to the Fork River Boys’ and Girls’ club for the year 1919.
The accounts as recommended by the finance committee were ordered paid.
Marcorft-Thorsteinson — hat the reeve, clerk and Coun. Hunt be a committee to look for suitable sites for the soldiers’ memorial.
By-laws were passed authorizing the purchase of seed grain and cancelling soldiers’ taxes.


The meetings took place on Thursday evening of Mr. William S. K[illegible], of Dauphin and Miss Florence J. [illegible], of Ethelbert.
[illegible] Adams, of Winnipegosis, has been appointed registration clerk for the east half of the Ethelbert constituency, and [illegible] Skaife, of Ethelbert, has been appointed registration clerk for the west half.


The Dramatic society have two performances of “The Private Secretary” last week. Mr. Shears in the title part was very good indeed. We did not know he could be so funny. Mr. Lamont as the Uncle from India was excellent; his acting was perfectly smooth and full of life. A new addition to the society was r. D.C. Brown, of the Bank of Nova Scotia here. He had an easy stage presence on the whole and a good voice. Our old friend Mr. Wilis is getting into a habit of trotting about too much. He is an old favorite and we don’t want to see him acquiring bad habits. The ladies all did well. Mrs. Shears’ voice was all it should have been in calling upon the spirits for a sign. Miss McMartin, as the daughter of the house and Miss Leith McMartin, as the widowed landlady, were both good. Miss Woodiow, who possess a striking beauty, was a most charming little girl on the stage n her flame colored dress. The make-ups were all good, some of them exceptionally so. Mr. Ketcheson, as the tailor, was very good indeed also Mr. Roberts.

Today in the Dauphin Herald – April 22, 1920

G.W.V.A. Notes

We wish all comrades to note that before they can make entry on Dominion Lands, both homestead and soldiers grant, they must have attestation certificates. If they will look after this matter before time of making entry, it will save them a lot of trouble and delay.
We note that Comrade Roy Armstrong is now with the Soldier Settlement Board as supervisor and takes in the district of Winnipegosis, Ochre River and Makinak.
At the last meeting of the Association we had a very fair attendance to hear Comrade Batty give his report of Montreal convention. He gave a general outline of the work done at the convention. We hope to see an increased interest in the meetings. Come out to them. The matter of the War Veterans’ home was up before the meeting and some discussion took place. We are still waiting on the results of the work of the Memorial Committee before making any public campaign for funds for our building. In the meantime we are getting all the money we can gather toward our building fund.
Comrade Herman, of Ashville, who has been in the hospital, is convalescent.
Comrade Garth Johnston has gone to Prairie River to start operations on his farm.
Hugh Lys and E.R. Bewell, supervisors for the S.S.B., are out on soldier settlement work.
We have had a number of men make use of the rooms this month while passing through and who appreciate same very much.

Bicton Health

Winnipegosis, April 20.
The rain Tuesday was welcome. Warmer weather is now assured. Don’t let us be impatient; you know we are promised seedtime and harvest as long as the world lasts.
The United Famers of the district held a meeting on the 17th at the home of Mr. Dumas. Important business was transacted. A resolution was passed requesting the Grain Growers to build an elevator at Winnipegosis the coming summer. The question of taking political action was brought up and discussed. A vote showed the meeting to be in favor of such a move.
The corduroy road leading to the school is nearly complete.
James Laidlaw is drawing his house and stable over to the homestead.
Frank Sharp has purchased a fine team of horses from Mr. Pruder.
A meeting will be held in the Orange Hall, Fork River, on the 27th inst. and it is expected that delegates from every local in the Ethelbert constituency will be present and it will then be decided whether a farmers’ candidate will be placed in the field.

Fork River

Father and Son Banquet—Boys’ work has come right into the limelight in Fork River with the introduction of the Canadian standard efficiency training under a local advisory council composed of Messrs. W. King, J. Williamson, A.J. Little, Fred. Cooper, C.E. Bailey and Milton Cooper.
A Trail Rangers’ camp has been formed with E.V. Lockwood as mentor, Robt. Williams chief ranger; Arthur Jameson, sub ranger Nathan Schucett, tally, and Ben Schucett, cache.
So interested are the boys that the ladies of the district, to encourage them, supplied a splendid banquet on Friday night last at which some 43 fathers and sons sat down and enjoyed the substantial repast. When the eating was finished the chief ranger bade them toast “The King,” which was done with musical honors.
The following toasts were enthusiastically honored: “Canada,” proposed by Arthur Jameson; “Tuxis Boys,” by N. Schuchett; “Our Dads,” by B. Schuchett; “Our Sons,” by W. King. A very nice little speech by D. Robertson on the “Kind of Dad I Like,” was responded to with excellent advice to boys on the “Kind of Son I Like,” by D.F. Wilson. “Our Homes” was given by Mr. Lockwood, and this was followed by three sort addresses by Prof. Williamson on the advantages of an education; Tuxis boys at large by Rev. H.P. Barrett and the boy and the church by Rev. E. Roberts. Votes of thanks to boys, ladies, speakers and officers were proposed by W. King, D. Lockwood, E.V. Lockwood and Rev. H.P. Barrett. The national anthem brought to a close an evening long to be remembered in the annuals of Fork River.

To the Editor of the Dauphin Herald:

O’wad some power the giftie gie us
To see ourselves as others see us.
So wrote the poet long years ago and we hope the writer of the article in your last issue entitled, “Fork River,” will be given that blessed gift, it may reach him sometime that it is very bad form to wash his dirty linen in public and still worse to do it in such a way as to convey the impression that it is editorial news.
Have very good first hand information as to all that happened at the returned soldiers “get together” in Fork River on a recent Saturday night and I suggest that the moralist who penned the account in the paper would be better employed in taking an active and religious interest in the welfare of the young folk of the district than in writing scurrilous articles under the cover of anonymity.
I am dear sir, yours faithfully,
Priest in charge of Fork River.


The regular monthly meeting of the Women’s Institute was held on Friday evening, April 16th, in the Union Church. A large number of the members were present. After the business was finished. Dr. Medd gave an interesting and most instructive address on “Child Welfare,” which was greatly appreciated by all present. The social part of the evening consisted in songs and a recitation, which were much enjoyed. Tea was served by the refreshment committee. The proceeds of the evening were placed to the credit of the Library fund.
The Fisherman’s ball, held last Thursday at the Rex Hall, was a great success.